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علی بلیانی علی رضا واعظی

چکیده

فرسایش بارانی نقشی مهم در تخریب خاک سطحی به ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌‌خشک ایفاء می‌‌کند. فرسایش ناشی از قطرات باران عامل عمده تخریب خاک مانند تراکم و مقاومت خاک و هدررفت خاک سطحی است. این پژوهش به‌منظور ارزیابی اثرات فرسایش بارانی بر هدررفت پاشمانی خاک، تراکم خاک و مقاومت سطح خاک تحت تأثیر درجه شیب و محتوای رطوبت پیشین در خاک‌‌های مختلف انجام شد. در این راستا شش نوع بافت خاک (رس، سیلت، لوم رسی، لوم سیلتی، لوم شنی و شن) در معرض بارانی با شدت 40 میلی‌‌متر بر ساعت به مدت 15 دقیقه در چهار درجه شیب (صفر، 10، 20 و 30 درصد) و چهار سطح محتوای رطوبت پیشین (هواخشک، یک‌‌چهارم اشباع، نیمه‌‌اشباع و اشباع) قرار گرفت. مجموعاً تعداد 288 جعبه خاک به ابعاد 35 سانتی‌‌متر × 25 سانتی‌متر با آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که تفاوت معنی‌‌داری (01/0p<) بین خاک‌‌ها از نظر مقدار فرسایش پاشمان، تراکم خاک و مقاومت سطح وجود داشت. در میان شش بافت خاک‌‌ مورد پژوهش، خاک با بافت سیلت بالاترین میانگین فرسایش پاشمان (93/1574 گرم بر متر مربع بر ساعت)، تراکم خاک (43/17 درصد) و نسبت مقاومت خاک (53/10 بدون بعد) را داشت و خاک با بافت شن کم‌‌ترین میانگین فرسایش پاشمان (37/437 گرم بر متر مربع بر ساعت)، تراکم خاک (25/0 درصد) و نسبت مقاومت خاک (66/2 بدون بعد) را نشان داد. همچنین همبستگی معنی‌‌داری بین فرسایش پاشمان، تراکم خاک و نسبت مقاومت خاک با برخی ویژگی‌‌های خاک شامل درصد شن، درصد سیلت، میانگین هندسی قطر ذرات، چگالی ظاهری، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع و کربنات کلسیم معادل مشاهده شد. نتایج این پژوهش می‌‌تواند در مدیریت منابع آب و خاک به ویژه در اراضی شیب‌‌دار با خاک‌‌های حساس به فرسایش ناشی از قطرات باران استفاده شود.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

تراکم خاک, درجه شیب, رطوبت خاک, فرسایش پاشمان, نسبت مقاومت سطح خاک

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ارجاع به مقاله
بلیانیع., & واعظیع. ر. (۱۳۹۷-۰۶-۱۷). بررسی ارتباط فرآیندهای فرسایش‌‌بارانی با درصد شیب و محتوای رطوبتی پیشین در خاک‌‌های منطقه نیمه‌‌خشک. آب و خاک, 32(5), 943-959. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v32i5.70295
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی