##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

شهرام امیرمرادی پرویز رضوانی مقدم علیرضا کوچکی شهناز دانش امیر فتوت

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور بررسی اثر غلظت های مختلف کادمیم و سرب بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی مریم گلی (Salvia officinalis L.) در سال 1390 درگلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد انجام شد. آزمایش بصورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اول شامل غلظت های کادمیم (0، 10، 20، 40 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم در آب آبیاری) و فاکتور دوم شامل غلظت های سرب (0، 100، 300 و 600 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم در آب آبیاری) بود. نشاء های مریم گلی در مرحله دوبرگی کشت شدند. آبیاری توسط محلول های نیترات کادمیم و سرب انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثرکادمیم و سرب بر وزن تر، وزن خشک، ارتفاع گیاه، میزان اسانس، میزان جذب کادمیم و سرب توسط اندام های هوایی و ریشه معنی دار بود. وزن تر اندام هوایی در غلظت کادمیم 40 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم نسبت به شاهد 61/4 درصد کاهش داشت و این کاهش در غلظت 600 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم برابر 16/5 درصد بود. وزن خشک اندام هوایی در حداکثر غلظت کادمیم نسبت به شاهد 83/10 درصد و درحداکثر غلظت سرب نسبت به شاهد 08/11درصد کاهش یافت. بیشترین مقدار جذب کادمیم توسط اندام های هوایی مربوط به تیمار غلظت 40 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم کادمیم و 600 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم سرب بود. در این آزمایش، فلزات سنگین در هیچ یک از تیمارهای آزمایش وجود نداشت، لذا به نظر می رسد که کشت این گیاه در شرایط استفاده از آب های آلوده به کادمیم و سرب قابل استفاده باشد.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1-Ahmad Kamel H. 2008. Lead Accumulation and its effect on photosynthesis and free amino acids in Vicia faba grown hydroponically. Australian Journal of Basic and Application Science. 2(3): 438-446.
2-Angelova V. K., Ivanov and Ivanova R. 2004. Effects of chemical forms of lead, cadmium, and zinc in polluted soils on their uptake by tobacco. J. Plant Nutrition. 27(5): 757-773.
3-Aycicek M., Ince M., and Yaman. M. 2008. Effects of cadmium on the germination, early seedling growth and metal content of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). International Journal of Science and Technology. 3(1):1-11.
4-Balestrasse K.B., Benavides M.P., Gallego S.M., and Tomaro, M.L. 2003. Effect of cadmium stress on nitrogen metabolism in nodules and roots of soybean plants. Functional Plant Biology. 30: 57-64.
5-Bavi Kh., Kholdebarin B., and Moradshahi. A. 2011. Effect of cadmium on growth, protein content and peroxidase activity in pea plants. Pakistan. J. Bot. 43(3): 1467-1470.
6- Baudouin C., Charveron M., Tarrouse R., and Gall Y. 2002 Environmental pollutants and skin cancer. Cell Biology and Toxicology. 18:341-348.
7-Begonia G. B. 1997. Comparative lead uptake and response of some plants grown on lead contaminated soils. J. Missisipi Academy Science. 42(2): 101-106.
8-Brennan M.A., and Shelley M.L. 1999. A model of the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of lead (Pb) by maize for the purpose of phytoextraction. Ecology and Engineering. 12: 271.
9-Croteau R., Burbott A.J., and Lommis W.D. 2006. Biosynthesis of mono and sesquiterpenes in peppermint. Phytochemistry. 71: 2937-2948.
10-Croteau R. and Johnson M.A. 1984. Biosynthesis of terpenoids in glandular trichomes. Chemistry of Plant Trichomes. Pp:133-185.
11-Curtis M. 2000. Healing Plants. Prague: Aventium.
12-Chen Y., Wang C., and Wang Z. 2005. Residues and source identification of persistent organic pollutants in farmland soils irrigated by effluents from biological treatment plants. Environment International 31: 778–783.
13-Chen Y.X., He Y.F., Luo Y.M., Yu Y.L., Lin Q., and Wong M.H. 2003. Physiological mechanism of plant roots exposed to cadmium. Chemosphere. 50: 789-793.
14-Czepak M. P. 1998. Produção de óleo bruto e mentol cristalizável em oito freqüências de colheita da menta (Menta arvensis L.). Sciences, Botucatu: 53-80.
15-Cunningham L.M., Collins F.W., and Hutchinson T.C.1975. Physiological and biochemical aspects of cadmium toxicity in soybean. In: Proceed of the Int. Conf. Heavy Metals in the Environment, Toronto, October 27:97–103.
16-Clemens S. 2006. Toxic metal accumulation, responses to exposure and mechanisms of tolerance in plants. Biochimie. 88:1707-1719.
17-Ghadreian S.M., and Jamali Hajiani N. 2010. Tolerance, uptake and accumulation of cadmium in Matthiola chenopodiifolia Fisch & C. A. Mey (Brassicaceae). Journal of Plant Biology. 6:87-98.
18-Ghani A. 2010. Effect of Cadmium Toxicity on the Growth and Yield Components of Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. World Applied Sciences. (Special Issue of Biotech. Genetic Engin) 8: 26-29.
19-Hall J.L. 2002. Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany. 53: 1–11.
20-Harmens H., Hartog P.R.D., Bookum W.M.T., and Verkleij J.A.C.1993. Increased zinc tolerance in Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garkle is not due to increased production of phytochelatins. Plant Physiol. 103:1305-1309.
21-Hassan M. J., Zhu Z., Ahmad B. and Mahmood F. 2006. Influence of cadmium toxicity on rice genotypes as affected by zinc, sulfur and nitrogen fertilizers. Caspian Journal of Environmental Science. 4(1): 1-8.
22-Hayat Sh., Hasan S.A., and Ahmad A. 2011. Growth, nitrate reductase activity and antioxidant system in cadmium stressed tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivars. Biotechnology and Agronomy Society and Environment. 15(3):401-414.
23-Heidari M., and Sarani S. 2011. Effect of lead and cadmium in seed germination, seedling growth and antioxidant enzymes activities of Mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.). Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. 6(1) :44-47.
24-Hernandez L.E., Carpena-Ruiz R., and Garate A. 1996. Alteration mineral nutrition of pea seedlings exposed to cadmium. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 19: 1581-1598.
25-Johna R., Ahmadb P., Gadgil K., and Sharma S. 2009. Heavy metal toxicity: Effect on plant growth, biochemical parameters and metal accumulation by Brassica juncea L. International Journal of Plant Production. 3:3.
26-Jun R., Ling T., and Guanghua Z. 2009. Effects of chromium on seed gemination, root elongation and coleoptile growth in six pulses. International Journal of Environmental Science Technology. 6: 571-578.
27-Kabata-Pendias A., and Pendias H.1991. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, second ed. CRC Press. 365.
28-Kabir M., Zafar Iqbal M., Shafiq Z.R., and Farooqi M.2008. Reduction in germination and seedling growth of Thespesia populnea L. caused by lead and cadmium treatments. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 40(6): 2419-2426.
29-Kasim W.A. 2005. The Correlation between Physiological and Structural Alterations Induced by Copper and Cadmium Stress in Broad Beans (Vicia faba L.) Egyptian Journal .of Biology.7: 20-32.
30-Liu W-X., Li H-H., Li S-R., and Wang Y-W.2006. Heavy metal accumulation of edible vegetables cultivated in agricultural soil in the suburb of Zhengzhou city, People’s Republic of China. Bulltain of Environmantal Contamination and Toxicology. 76:163–170.
31-Lindsay W.L., and Norvell W.A.1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganez and copper. Soil Science Society of American Journal. 42: 421-428.
32-Małkowski E., Kurtykal R., Kita A.,and Karcz W. 2005. Accumulation of Pb and Cd and its effect on Ca distribution in maize seedlings (Zea Mays L.). Polish journal of Environmental Studies. 14(2): 203-207.
33-Meharg A.A.1993. Integrated tolerance mechanisms constitutive and adaptive plant response to elevated metal concentrations in the environment. Plant, Cell and Environment.17: 989-993.
34-Mitchell P. 1979. Keilin`s respiratory chain concept and its chemiosmotic consequences. Science. 206: 11-48.
35-Mihalescu LA., Mare-Rosca O.E., Marian M., and Bildar C.F. 2010.Research on the growth intensity of the zea mays L. plantlets aerial parts under cadmium treatment. Analele Universitatii din Oradea, Fascicula Biologie. 147-151.
36-Muchuweti M., Birkett J. W., Chinyanga E., Zvauya R., Scrimshaw M.D., and Lester J.N. 2006. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixture of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agriculture, Ecology and Environment. 112: 41–48.
37-Nowak J. 2007. Effect of cadmium and lead concentrations and arbascular mycorrhiza on growth, flowering and heavy metal accumulation in Scarlet Sage(Salvia splendens Sello Torrreador). Acta Agrobotanica. 60(1):79-83.
38-Obata H., Inone N., and Umebayshi M. 1996. Effect of cadmium on plasma membrane ATPase from plant root differing in tolerance to cadmium. Soil Science. Plant. Nutrition. 42, 361-366.
39-Padmaja K., Parsad D.K., and Parsad A.R.1990. Inhibition of chlorophyll synthesis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. seedlings by cadmium acetate. Photosynthetica. 24: 399–404.
40-Pandey S., Gupta K., and Mukharjee A.K. 2007. Impact of cadmium and lead on Catharanthus roseus- A phytoremediation study. Jornal of Environmental Biology. 28:655-662.
41-Patra M., Bhowmik N., Bandopadhyay B., and Sharma A. 2004. Comparison of mercury, lead and arsenic with respect to genotoxic effects on plant systems and the development of genetic tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 52: 199-223.
42-Punz W. F., Sieghardt H.1993. The response of roots of herbaceous plant species to heavy metals. Environtal and Expermintal Botany. 33: 85-98.
43-Rayan J.R., Estefan G., and Rashid A. 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual. (2nd edition). ICARDA. Syria. P.172.
44-Rotkittikhun P., Kruatrachue M., Pokethitiyook P., and Baker A.J.M.2010.Tolerance and accumulation of lead in Vetiveria zizanioides and its effect on oil production. Journal of Environmental Biology. 31: 329-334.
45-Sanita di Toppi L. and Gabbrielli R. 1999. Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 41:105-130.
46-Scora R W., Chang A C (1997). Essential oil quality and heavy metal concentrations of peppermint grown on a municipal sludge-amended soil. Journal of Environmental Quality. 26(4): 975-979.
47-Shah, F. R., Ahmad N., Masood K.R., and Zahid D.M. 2008. The influence of cadmium and chromium on the biomass production of shisham (Dalbergia sissoo ROXB.) seedlings. Pakistan. Journal of Botany. 40(4): 1341-1348.
48-Shanker A. K., Cervantes C., Loza-Tavera H., and Avudainayagam S. 2005. Chromium toxicity in plants. Environment International. 31: 63-68.
49-Singh S., Singh A., and Bahadur R. 2011. Effect of cadmium on germination and seedling growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill). Plant Arch. 11(2): 859-862.
50-Soghoian S, R. Sinert. 2009. Toxicity, heavy metals.http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/814960-overview.
51-Srivastava N. K. and Luthra R.1994. Relationship between photosynthetic carbon metabolism and essential oil biogenesis in peppermint under Mn stress. Journal of Experimental. Botany.45: 1127-1132.
52-Stancheva M.G., Hristozkova M., Markovska Y., and Salamon I. 2010.Antioxidant Capacity of sage grown on heavy metal polluted Soil. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology.57(6):799–805.
53-Stancheva M., Geneva M., Hristozkov M., Boychinova M., and Markovska Y. 2009. Essential oil varioations of Salvia officinalis L. grown on heavy metals polluted soil. Biotech. Biotech.EQ. XI Anniversary Science Conference. Special Edit. Online. 373-376.
54-Sun Y.,. Zhou Q, and Diao Ch.2008. Effects of cadmium and arsenic on growth and metal accumulation of Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. Bioresearch and Tech.99: 1103–1110.
55-Tirillini B., Ricci A., Pintore G., Chessa M., and Sighinolfi S. 2006. Induction of Hypericins in Hypericum perforatum in Response to Chromium. Fitoterapia.77: 164-70.
56-Tiryakioglu M., Eker S., Ozkutlu F. 2006. Antioxidant defense system and cadmium uptake in barley genotypes differing in cadmium tolerance. Journal of Trace Element. Medicine and Biology. 20: 181-189.
57-Topalov V. and Zhelyazkov V. 1991. Effect of harvesting on the yield of fresh material, essential oil, and planting material from Mentha piperita L. and Mentha arvensis L. Herba. Hung 50: 60-67.
58-Van Assche F., Clijsters H.1990. Effects of heavy metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant and Cell Environmen. 13: 195-206.
59-Vassilev A. and Yordanov I.1997. Reductive analysis of factors limiting growth of cadmium –treated plants: A Review:Bulgarian Journal Plant Physiology. 23(3-4): 114-133.
60-Vassilev A., Schwitzguébel J.P., Thewys T., Van der Lelie D., and Vangronsveld J. 2004. The Use of plants for remediation of metal-contaminated soils. Rev. The Science World Journal. 4:9–34.
61-Wei S.H., Zhou Q.X. 2004. Discussion on basic principles and strengthening measures for phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. Chin. J. Ecol. 23: 65–72 (in Chinese).
62-Wierzbicka M. 1995. How lead loses its toxicity to plant. Acta Socienty Botany. 64: 81-90.
63-Wierzbicka1 M. 1998. Lead in the apoplast of Allium cepa L. root tips.ultrastructural studies. Plant Science.133:105.
64-Yang X.E., Long X.X., Ye H.B., He Z.L., Calvert D.V., Stoffella P.J. 2004. Cadmium tolerance and hyperaccumulation in a new Znhyperaccumulating plant species (Sedum alfrdii Hance.). Plant and Soil. 259: 181–189.
65-Zheljazkov V.D., and Nielson N.E. 1996. Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint. Plant and Soil. 178: 59–66.
66-Zheljazkov V.D. Jeliazkova E.A., Kovacheva N., and Dzhurmanski A. 2008. Metal uptake by medicinal plant species grown in soils contaminated by a smelter, Environmental Expermental Botany. 64: 207–216.
67-Zheljazkov V.D., Craker L.E., and Xing B. 2006. Effects of Cd, Pb, and Cu on growth and essential oil contents in dill, peppermint, and basil Environmental and Experiment Botany. 58: 9–16.
68-Zheljazkov V.D., and Nielsen N.E. 1993. Studies on the Effect of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) Upon The Growth, Productivity and Quality of Lavander (Lavandula vera D. C.) Production. A Paper Presented at the 24th International Symposium on Essential Oils. Berlin. Journal of Essential Oil Research. (In press).
69-Zheljazkov V D, and Warman P.R.2003. Source-Separated Municipal Solid Waste Compost 70-Application to Swiss Chard and Basil. Heavy Metals in the Environment. Technical Report.
70-Zheljazkov V.D., Warman P.R.2003. Application of High Cu Compost to Swiss Chard and Basil. Science Total Environment. 302:13–26.
ارجاع به مقاله
امیرمرادیش., رضوانی مقدمپ., کوچکیع., دانشش., & فتوتا. (2015). مطالعه کشت مریم گلی در شرایط استفاده از آب های آلوده به کادمیم و سرب. آب و خاک, 29(5), 1360-1375. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v29i5.51508
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی