حامد رجبی صدیقه صفرزاده شیرازی عبدالمجید رونقی


نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم از جمله عناصر غذایی ضروری پر مصرف هستند که وظایف مهمی در گیاه بر عهده دارند. به منظور بررسی اثر بیوچار تفاله پسته و کود شیمیایی بر رشد و ترکیب شیمیایی گیاه اسفناج (رقم viroflay)، آزمایش گلخانه¬ای به صورت فاکتوریل (3×3×2) در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارها شامل سه سطح بیوچار تهیه شده از تفاله پسته (صفر، 3 و 6 درصد وزنی) تولید شده در دو دمای 200 و 400 درجه سلسیوس و سه سطح نیتروژن و فسفر ]صفر، (نیتروژن 80 و فسفر 15 میلی¬گرم در کیلوگرم) و (نیتروژن 150 و فسفر 30 میلی¬گرم در کیلوگرم)[ بود. نتایج نشان داد که بیوچار تولید شده در دمای 200 و 400 درجه سلسیوس اثر معنی¬داری بر وزن خشک گیاه اسفناج نداشت. کاربرد هر دو سطح نیتروژن و فسفر سبب افزایش معنی¬دار میانگین وزن خشک گیاه اسفناج در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شد. کاربرد بیوچار تولید شده در دمای 200 درجه سلسیوس غلظت نیتروژن، فسفر، و پتاسیم اندام¬های هوایی اسفناج را به طور معنی¬داری نسبت به شاهد افزایش داد، اما بیوچار تولید شده در دمای 400 درجه سلسیوس تنها سبب افزایش معنی دار غلظت فسفر و پتاسیم شد. اضافه کردن هر دو سطح نیتروژن و فسفر سبب افزایش معنی¬دار غلظت نیتروژن و فسفر و کاهش معنی دار غلظت پتاسیم اندام¬های هوایی نسبت به شاهد شد. دمای تولید بیوچار اثر معنی داری بر وزن خشک و غلظت نیتروژن اندام هوایی اسفناج نداشت اما کاربرد بیوچار تولیدی در دمای 400 درجه سلسیوس سبب کاهش معنی دار غلظت فسفر و افزایش معنی دار غلظت پتاسیم اندام هوایی نسبت به بیوچار تولید شده در دمای 200 درجه سلسیوس شد.

جزئیات مقاله

1- Biederman L. A., and Harpole W. S. 2013. Biochar and its effects on plant productivity and nutrient cycling: a meta‐analysis. Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 5(2): 202-214.
2- Blackwell P., Shea S., Storer P. Z., Solaiman Z., Kerkmans M., and Stanley I. 2007. Improving wheat production with deep banded oil mallee charcoal in Western Australia. In First Asia Pacific Biochar Conference, Terrigal, Australia (Vol. 30).
3- Blackwell P., Reithmuller G., and Collins M. 2009. Biochar application to soil. In Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (eds.). Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. London: Earthscan Publishing. 405p.
4- Bremner J. M. 1996. Nitrogen total. In: Sparks, D. L. (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3. Chemical Methods. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp.1085-1121.
5- Carter S., Shackley S., Sohi S., Suy T. B., and Haefele S. 2013. The impact of biochar application on soil properties and plant growth of pot grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and cabbage (Brassica chinensis). Agronomy, 3:404-418.
6- Chan K. Y., Van Zwieten L., Meszaros I., Downie A., and Joseph S. 2007. Agronomic values of greenwaste biochar as a soil amendment. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 45(8): 629-634.
7- Chapman H. D., and Pratt D. F. 1961. Methods of Analysis for Soil, Plant, and Water. University. California. Division Agriculture. Soil Science, PP. 60-62.
8- Clough T. J., and Condron L. M. 2010. Biochar and the nitrogen cycle: Introduction. Journal of Environmental Quality, 39(4): 1218-1223.
9- Deluca T. H., MacKenzie M. D., and Gundale M. J. 2009. Biochar effects on soil nutrient transformations. In: Lehmann J., Joseph S. (eds) Biochar for environmental management: science and technology. Earthscan, London, pp 251–270.
10- Ding Y., Liu Y. X., Wu W. X., Shi D. Z., Yang M., and Zhong Z. K. 2010. Evaluation of biochar effects on nitrogen retention and leaching in multi-layered soil columns. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 213(1-4): 47-55.
11- Enders A., Hanley K., Whitman T., Joseph S., and Lehmann J. 2012. Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance. Bioresource Technology, 114: 644-653.
12- Farzaneh N., Golchin A., Hashemi Majd K. 2010. The effect of different supplement nitrogen and potassium levels and on yield, nitrogen and potassium concentration of tomato leaves. Science and Technology of Greenhouse Cultivation, 1(1): 27-33. (in persian).
13- Gaskin, J. W., Steiner C., Harris K., Das K. C., and Bibens B. 2008. Effect of low-temperature pyrolysis conditions on biochar for agricultural use. Transactions of the ASABE, 51(6): 2061-2069.
14- Gaskin J. W., Speir R. A., Harris K., Das K. C., Lee R. D., Morris L. A., and Fisher D. S. 2010. Effect of peanut hull and pine chip biochar on soil nutrients, corn nutrient status, and yield. Agronomy Journal, 102(2): 623-633.
15- Gee G. W., and Bauder J. W. 1986. Particle size analysis, hydrometer methods. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. D. L. Sparks et al. (eds.) part 2. American Society of Agronomy. Inc: Madison, WI. pp: 383-411.
16- Glyn, M. F. 2002. Mineral nutrition, production and artemisin content in Artemisia annual. Acta Horticulture, 426: 721-728.
17- Grant, C., Bittman S., Montreal M., Plenchette C., and Morel C. 2005. Soil and fertilizer phosphorus: Effects on plant P supply and mycorrhizal development. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 85(1): 3-14.
18- Havlin J. L., Beaton J. D., Tisdale S. L., and Nelson W. L. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers, an introduction to nutrient management. Prentice – Hall, Inc.
19- Hossain M. K., Strezov V., Chan K. Y., Ziolkowski A., and Nelson P. F. 2011. Influence of pyrolysis temperature on production and nutrient properties of wastewater sludge biochar. Journal of Environmental Management, 92(1), 223-228.
20- Jeffery S., Verheijien F. G. A., van der Velde M., and Bastos A. C. 2011. A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 144: 175–187.
21- Ju X. T., Kou C. L., Christie P., Dou Z. X., and Zhang F. S. 2007. Changes in the soil environment from excessive application of fertilizers and manures to two contrasting intensive cropping systems on the North China Plain. Environmental Pollution, 145(2): 497-506.
22- Kishimoto S., and Sugiura G. 1985. Charcoal as a soil conditioner. International Achievement Future, 5: 12-23.
23- Knudsen D., Peterson G. A., and Pratt P. F. 1982. Lithium, sodium and potassium. Part 3. In: Page, A. L. (Ed.).part3. Methods of Soil Analysis, Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science Society of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 225-246.
24- Lehmann J. 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Front. Ecol. Environ, 5: 381–387.
25- Lehmann J., and Joseph S. 2009. Biochar for environmental management. Science and Technology. London: Earthscan Publishing, 405p.
26- Lehmann J., and Rondon M. A. 2005. Bio-char soil management on highly weathered soil in the humid tropics’. Chapter 36. In: Uphoff N. (ed) Biological approaches to sustainable soil systems. CRC, Boca Raton, pp 517–530.
27- Lehmann J., Kem D., German L., McCann J., Martis G. C., and Moreira L. 2003. Soil fertility and production potential. Chapter 6. In: Lehmann J, D. C. Kern, B. Glaser, W. I. Woods (eds) Amazonian dark earths: origin, properties, management. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, pp 105–124.
28- Lindsay W., and Norvell W. A. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42(3): 421-428.
29- Liu T., Liu B., and Zhang W. 2014. Nutrients and heavy metals in Biochar produced by sewage sludge pyrolysis: It’s application in soil amendment. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 23(1): 271-275.
30- Major J., Steiner C., Downie A., and Lehmann J. 2009. Biochar effects on nutrient leaching. In Lehmann, J., Joseph, S. (eds.). Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. London: Earthscan publishing. 405p. Lehmann, J. 2007. Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 5: 381–387.
31- Major J., Rondon M., Molina D., Riha S. J., and Lehmann J. 2010. Maize yield and nutrition during 4 years after biochar application to a Colombian savanna oxisol. Plant and Soil, 333(1-2): 117-128.
32- Mazloumi F., and Ronaghi A. 2012. Effect of salinity and phosphorus on growth and chemical composition of two varieties of spinach. Journal of Science and Tecnology of Culture, 9:85-94. (in persian).
33- Nelson D. W., and Sommers L. E. 1996. Total carbn, organic carbn, and organic matter. 3rd Ed. In: Sparks, D. L., et al., (Ed). Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3, Chemical and microbiological properties. Soil Science of America and American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin, pp: 961-1010.
34- Page A. L., Miller R. H., and Keeney D. R. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part2, 2nd Ed., Soil. Sci. Soc. Am. and Am. Soc. Agron., Madison.WI.
35- Rhoades J. D. 1996. Salinity: Electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. In: Methods of Soil Analysis. D. L. Sparks et al. (eds.). Part 3. 3rd ed. American Society of Agronomy, Inc: Madison, WI. pp: 417-436.
36- Rajkovich S., Enders A., Hanley K., Hyland C., Zimmerman A. R., and Lehmann J. 2012. Corn growth and nitrogen nutrition after additions of biochars with varying properties to a temperate soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 48(3): 271-284.
37- Sheikhi J., and Ronaghi A. 2013. Influence of nitrogen and salinity levels on yield, nitrogen uptake, nitrate concentration and chlorophyll content of spinach and some properties of post-harvest soil in a calcareous soil. Journal of Science and Tecnology of Culture, 12: 1-11. (in Persian with English abstract ).
38- Steiner C., Das K. C., Garcia M., Forster B., and Zech W. 2008. Charcoal and smoke extract stimulate the soil microbial community in a highly weathered xanthic Ferralso. Pedobiologia, 51: 359–366.
39- Takebe M., Ishihara T., Matsuno K., Fujimoto J., and Yoneyama T. 1995. Effect of nitrogen application on the contents of sugars, ascorbic acid, nitrate and oxalic acid in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and komatsuna (Brassica campestris L.). Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition (in Japanease with English abstract), 66: 238-246.
40- Thies J. E., and Rillig M. C. 2009. Characteristics of biochar: biological properties. Sterling. In Lehmann, J. and Joseph, S. (eds.). Biochar for Environmental Management. Science and Technology. London. Earthscan Publishing, PP: 85-105.
41- Thomas G. W. 1996. Soil pH and soil asidity. In: Methods of Soil Analysis D. L. Sparks et al. (eds.) part 3. 3rd ed. American Scoiesty of Agronomy. Inc: Madison, WI. pp: 475-490.
42- Vaccari F. P., Baronti S., Lugato E., Genesio L., Castaldi S., Fornasier F., and Miglietta F. 2011. Biochar as a strategy to sequester carbon and increase yield in durum wheat. European Journal of Agronomy, 34(4): 231-238.
43- Watanabe F. S., and Olsen S. R. 1965. Test of an ascorbic acid method for determining phosphorus in water and NaHCO3 extracts from soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 29(6): 677-678.
44- Yuan J. H., Xu R. K., and Zhang H. 2011. The forms of alkalis in the biochar produced from crop residues at different temperatures. Bioresource Technology, 102(3): 3488-3497.
45- Zahedifar M., Ronaghi A. M., Moosavi S. A. A., and S. Safarzadeh Shirazi. 2010. Influence of salinity and nitrogen levels on growth, yield, and nutrient uptake of tomato in hydroponics culture. Journal of Science and Technology of Greenhouse culture, 1 (2):31-40.
46- Zhang W. J., Li Z. F., Zhang Q. Z., Du Z. L., Ma M. Y., and Wang Y. D. 2011. Impacts of Biochar and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Spinach Yield and Tissue Nitrate Content from a Pot Experiment [in n Japanease with English abstract]. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 10:1946-1952.
ارجاع به مقاله
رجبیح., صفرزاده شیرازیص., & رونقیع. (2016). اثر بیوچار تفاله پسته تولید شده در دو دمای مختلف و سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و فسفر بر غلظت برخی عناصر پرمصرف و رشد اسفناج. آب و خاک, 31(2), 557-569. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v31i2.54206
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی