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عالیه سعادت پور امین علیزاده علی نقی ضیائی عزیزاله ایزدی

چکیده

در سال­های اخیر، مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک با مشکل تخلیه­ی شدید منابع آب زیرزمینی به دلیل برداشت بی رویه از آن­ها رو به رو شده­اند. همچنین، آب سطحی و زیرزمینی در بسیاری از جوانب در ارتباط و تعامل مشترک بوده­اند. بنابراین، پیشرفت جامع و طولانی مدت راهکارهای مدیریت آب جهت پیاده­سازی روش­هایی برای حل مشکلات خصوصاً در حوضه­های بزرگ مقیاس، امری ضروری است. در تحقیق حاضر، چارچوب یک مدل تلفیقی آب سطحی و زیرزمینی جهت تسریع مدیریت منابع آب در حوضه خشک و نیمه خشک نیشابور و تحت آبیاری متمرکز از آب زیرزمینی، ارائه شده است. مدل اخیراً توسعه یافته تلفیقی SWAT-MODFLOW به صورت روزانه، آب زیرزمینی پمپ شده را از مدل MODFLOW جهت آبیاری مزارع تحت کشت به مدل SWAT منتقل کرده و با نفوذ عمقی از زیر پروفایل خاک، به عنوان تغذیه به مدل MODFLOW وارد می­کند. واسنجی مدل SWAT-MODFLOW برای 9 سال (2009-2001) و صحت­سنجی برای 2 سال (2011-2010) با استفاده از نتایج مدل در ایستگاه­های هیدرومتری آب سطحی و تراز آب زیرزمینی در چاه­های مشاهداتی آبخوان حوضه نیشابور به صورت روزانه انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در مرحله واسنجی رواناب ماهانه، ضرایب p-factor، r-factor، R2 و NS که به منظور ارزیابی توانایی مدل SWAT در شبیه­سازی رواناب به کار برده شد، در خروجی حوضه به ترتیب حدود 36/0، 21/0، 85/0 و 84/0 و در مرحله اعتبارسنجی به ترتیب 29/0، 83/0، 70/0 و 65/0 بوده است. بیشترین نرخ نفوذ در ماه­های اسفند و بهمن و کمترین نرخ نفوذ در ماه­های شهریور و مهر اتفاق افتاده است. همچنین از نظر توزیع مکانی، این مقدار تغذیه بیشتر در مخروط افکنه­ها و مناطق آبرفتی اتفاق می­افتد. با بررسی مقدار میانگین سطح ایستابی آب زیرزمینی مشاهده­ای و شبیه­سازی شده برای دوره­ی 2001 تا 2011 و برای 48 چاه مشاهداتی مشخص شد که میزان خطا برای 78% از نقاط، کمتر از 2 متر می­باشد و تنها 3 چاه خارج از بازه %15± خطا قرار دارد. همچنین سطح ایستابی در سال­های اخیر به شدت روند کاهشی نشان داده است که علت آن برداشت بی­رویه آب از چاه­ها در دوره مورد بررسی بوده است. به طور کلی نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که مدل تلفیقی توسعه یافته SWAT-MODFLOW می­تواند در سایر حوضه­های خشک و نیمه خشک که آبیاری آن­ها عمدتاً از آبخوان انجام می­شود، استفاده گردد. علاوه بر این، این مدل می­تواند جهت مطالعات مدیریت پایدار منابع آب در دهه‌های آینده مورد استفاده قرار گیرد.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

آب زیرزمینی, آب سطحی, مدل تلفیقی, نیشابور, SWAT-MODFLOW

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ارجاع به مقاله
سعادت پورع., علیزادها., ضیائیع. ن., & ایزدیع. (2019). مدل¬سازی یکپارچه آب سطحی و زیرزمینی در مناطق متکی بر سیستم کشاورزی آبی با استفاده از مدل SWAT-MODFLOW (مطالعه موردی: حوضه آبریز نیشابور). آب و خاک, 33(4), 521-536. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v0i0.74658
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی