##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

حسن لطفی پارسا محسن شکل آبادی قاسم اسدیان

چکیده

بخش­بندی اندازه دانه­ای و بیوشیمیایی کربن آلی روشی سودمند در شناخت و بررسی پویایی و فرایند­های نگهداشت، تجزیه و خروج آن­ها از خاک می­باشد. مراتع حاوي بیش از یک سوم ذخایر کربن زمین بوده و یکی از مهم­ترین اکوسیستم­ها جهت ذخیره کربن بشمار می­روند. از این رو این مطالعه با هدف بررسی تغییرات بخش­بندی اندازه دانه­ای و بیوشیمیایی کربن آلی خاک در فواصل مختلف از سطح ریشه­ی پنج گیاه مرتعی در استان همدان انجام پذیرفت. جداسازی خاک­های ریزوسفری از ریشه­ها انجام شد و خاک­ها به سه بخش خاک ریزوسفری، بین ریزوسفری و توده­ای تقسیم شدند. بخش­بندی اندازه دانه­ای و بیوشیمیایی کربن آلی روی خاک­ها انجام شد. بیشترین میزان کربن آلی در نواحی نزدیک به ریشه­ها و خاکدانه­های کوچک‌تر از 15/0 میلی­متر مشاهده گردید. علیرغم فعالیت بالای ریزجانداران در این نواحی، میزان کربن آلی به‌دلیل ترشحات ریشه­ای همچنان بالاتر از نقاط دورتر از ریشه بود. بخش­های مختلف بیوشیمیائی کربن و MWD دارای همبستگی بسیار معناداری با کربن آلی کل بودند که نشان­دهنده­ی اثر کربن آلی خاک بر ویژگی­های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک است. بخش‌های بیوشیمیایی در نزدیک ریشه­ها که شدت تجزیه­ی کمتری داشتند مربوط به کربن محلول در آب و کربن قابل دسترس بود در حالی‌که با افزایش فاصله از سطح ریشه مقادیر کربن مقاوم به تجزیه افزایش می­یافت.

جزئیات مقاله

کلمات کلیدی

خاکدانه سازی, کربن آلی, ریزوسفر, کمپلکسهای آلی-معدنی, گیاه مرتعی

مراجع
1- Azarnivand H., Joneidi H., Zare Chahooki M.A., and Maddah Arefi H. 2011. Investigation of the effects of some ecological factors on carbon sequestration in Artemisia sieberi rangelands of Semnan province. Journal of Range and Watershed Management 64: 107–127. (In Persian)
2- Baldock J.A., and Skjemstad J.O. 2000. Role of the soil matrix and minerals in protecting natural organic materials against biological attack. Organic. Geochemistry 31: 697–710.
3- Barber S.A. 1984. Soil Nutrient Bioavailability. John Wily and Sons Publication. New York.
4- Bernoux M., Carvalho M.C.S., Volkoff B., and Cerri C.C. 2002. Brazil’s soil carbon stocks. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66: 888–896.
5- Brahim N., Blavet D., Gallali T., and Bernoux M. 2011. Application of structural equation modeling for assessing relationships between organic carbon and soil properties in semiarid Mediterranean region. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 8: 305–320.
6- Chantigny M.H., Angers D.A., and Beauchamp C.J. 1999. Aggregation and organic matter decomposition in soil amended with de-inking paper sludge. Soil Science Society of America Journal 63: 1214–1222.
7- Chen D.Z., Zhang J.X., and Chen J.M. 2010. Adsorption of methyl tert-butyl ether using granular activated carbon: Equilibrium and kinetic analysis. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7: 235–242.
8- Chenini I., and Khemiri S. 2009. Evaluation of ground water quality using multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 6: 509–519.
9- Christensen B.T. 1996. Carbon in primary and secondary organomineral complexes. In structure and organic matter storage in agricultural soils in: Cater, M. R.; Stewart, B. A., (Eds.) 97–165. CRC Press, Boca Raton.
10- Denef K., and Six J. 2005. Clay mineralogy determines the importance of biological versus abiotic processes for macroaggregate formation and stabilization. European Journal of Soil Science 56: 469–479.
11- Dijkstra F.A., Carrillo Y., Pendall E., and Morgan J.A. 2013. Rhizosphere priming: a nutrient perspective. Frontiers in Microbiology 4: 204–216.
12- Kaiser K., and Zech W. 1999. Release of natural organic matter sorbed to oxides and a subsoil. Soil Sciences Society American Journal 63: 1157–1166.
13- Kemper W.D., and Rosenau R.C. 1986. Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Methods of soil analysis. Part 1: physical and mineralogical methods. A. Klute (eds) (Monograph no.9,2nd edn). ASA, Madison, Wis, America.
14- Kuzyakov Y., Hill P.W., and Jones D.L. 2007. Root exudate components change litter decomposition in a simulated rhizosphere depending on temperature. Plant and Soil 290: 293–305.
15- Lal R. 2002. Soil carbon dynamic in cropland and rangeland. Environment Pollution 116: 353–362.
16- Liu YL., Yao SH., Han XZ., Zhang B., and Banwart SA. 2017. Soil Mineralogy Changes with Different Agricultural Practices During 8-Year Soil Development from the Parent Material of a Mollisol. Advances in Agronomy 142: 143–179.
17- Loeppert R.H., and Suarez D.L. 1996. Carbonate and gypsum. In D.L. Sparks et al. (ed.) Methods of soil analysis. Part 3. 3rd ed. SSSA Book Ser. 5. SSSA, Madison, WI p. 437–474.
18- Lopez-Sangil L., and Rovira P. 2013. Individual closed chamber: an alternative method for quantifying 14C in both labeled organic and inorganic carbon substrates. Biogeochemistry 112:139-148.
19- Mehra O.P., and Jackson M.L. 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by dithionite-citrate systems buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays and Clay Minerals 7: 317–327.
20- Okoye A.I., Ejikeme P.M., and Onukwuli O.D. 2010. Lead removal from wastewater using fluted pumpkin seed shell activated carbon: Adsorption modeling and kinetics. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 7: 793-800.
21- Paustian K., Levine E., Post W.M., and Ryzhova I.M. 1997. The use of models to integrate information and understanding of soil C at the regional scale. Geoderma 79: 227–260.
22- Pronk GJ., Heister K., Ding GC., Smalla K., and Kögel-Knabner I. 2012. Development of biogeochemical interfaces in an artificial soil incubation experiment; aggregation and formation of organo-mineral associations. Geoderma 189: 585–594.
23- Rovira P., Romanyà J., and Duguy B. 2012. Long-term effects of wildfires on the biochemical quality of soil organic matter: a study on Mediterranean shrublands. Geoderma 179: 9–19.
24- Safari Sinegani A.A., and Rashidi T. 2011. Changes in phosphorus fractions in the rhizosphere of some crop species under glasshouse conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 174: 899–907.
25- Safari Sinegani A.A. 2013. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. Bu-Ali Sina University Publication center, Hamadan, Iran. (In Persian)
26- Safari Sinegani A.A. 2015. Soil Organic Matter. Bu-Ali Sina University Publication Center, Hamadan, Iran. (In Persian)
27- Schuman G.E., Reeder J.P., Manley J.T., Hart R.H., and Manley W.A. 1999. Impact of grazing management on the carbon and nitrogen balance of a mixed grass rangeland. Ecological Application 9: 65–71.
28- Silveira M.L., Comerford N.B., Reddy K.R., Cooper W.T., and El-Rifai H. 2008. Characterization of soil organic carbon pools by acid hydrolysis. Geoderma 144: 405–414.
29- Turpault MP. 2006. Sampling of rhizosphere soil for physico-chemical and mineralogical analyses by physical separation based on dyeing and shaking. In Handbook of methods used in rhizosphere research. Eds. Luster J and Finlay R. pp. 196-197. Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL.
30- Turpault MP., Nys C., and Calvaruso C. 2009. Rhizosphere impact on the dissolution of test minerals in a forest ecosystem. Geoderma 153: 147–154.
31- Von Lützow M., Köegel-Knabner I., Ekschmitt K., Matzner E., Guggenberger G., Marschner B., and Flessa H. 2006. Stabilization of organic matter in temperate soils: Mechanisms and their relevance under different soil conditions—A review. European Journal of Soil Science 57: 426–445.
32- Walkley A., and Black I.A. 1934. An Examination of the Degtjareff Method for Determining Soil Organic Matter, and A Proposed Modification of the Chromic Acid Titration Method. Soil Science 37: 29–38.
33- Zhang H., and Zhou Z. 2018. Recalcitrant carbon controls the magnitude of soil organic matter mineralization in temperate forests of northern China. Forest Ecosystems, 5(1), p.17.
34- Zimmermann M., Meir P., Bird M., Malhi Y., and Ccahuana A. 2009. Litter contribution to diurnal and annual soil respiration in a tropical montane cloud forest. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 41: 1338–1340.
35- Zornoza R., Mataix-Solera J., Guerrero C., Victoria A., García-Orenes F., Mataix B., and Morugán A. 2007. Evaluation of soil quality using multiple lineal regressions based on physical, chemical and biochemical properties. Science of the Total Environment 378: 233–237.
36- Zubair M., Anwar F., Ashraf M., and Chatha S. 2012. Effect of green and farmyard manure on carbohydrates dynamics of salt-affected soil. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 12: 497–510.
ارجاع به مقاله
لطفی پارساح., شکل آبادیم., & اسدیانق. (2019). بخش¬بندی اندازه¬ای و بیوشیمیایی کربن آلی خاکِ همراه با ریشه¬ی چند گیاه مرتعی. آب و خاک, 33(5), 763-778. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v33i5.80484
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی