ارزیابی تبخیر- تعرق ذرت و اجزای آن و ارتباط آنها با شاخص سطح برگ در سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی و زیرسطحی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی کرج

2 دانشگاه بوعلی سینا

3 بوعلی سینا همدان

چکیده

جداسازی تبخیر- تعرق به منظور شناخت و تعیین دقیق سهم هر یک از اجزای تبخیر- تعرق دارای اهمیت زیادی است و اساس بسیاری از طرح‌های مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی منابع آب می‌باشد. پژوهش حاضر به منظور مقایسه تبخیر- تعرق ذرت و اجزای آن تحت دو سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی و زیرسطحی در مزرعه الگوی معاونت آب و خاک وزارت جهاد کشاورزی واقع در کرج اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که مقدار ETc ذرت در سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای سطحی و زیرسطحی به ترتیب 09/377 و 92/371 میلی‌متر بدست آمد که از این مقدار سهم اجزای تعرق گیاهی و تبخیر از سطح خاک در سیستم قطره‌ای سطحی به ترتیب 81/200 و 02/176 و در سیستم قطره‌ای زیرسطحی 04/213 و 81/158میلی‌متر بدست آمد. هم‌چنین مقدار تبخیر از سطح خاک در دوره‌های اولیه، توسعه و میانی به ترتیب برابر 65، 83/58 و 98/34 میلی‌متر برای سیستم قطره‌ای زیرسطحی و 02/73، 73/65 32/37 میلی‌متر برای سیستم قطره‌ای سطحی حاصل شد. کل مقدار تعرق گیاهی در دوره‌های اولیه، توسعه و میانی به ترتیب برابر 78/12، 31/81 و 95/118 میلی‌متر برای سیستم قطره‌ای زیرسطحی و برای سیستم قطره‌ای سطحی 88/5، 82/76 و 21/118 میلی‌متر بوده است. نتایج نشان داد که سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای زیرسطحی نسبت به سیستم قطره‌ای سطحی دارای تلفات تبخیر از سطح خاک کمتر و هم‌چنین دارای میزان تعرق گیاهی بیشتری در طول فصل رشد ذرت می‌باشد که این می‌تواند در افزایش عملکرد گیاه ذرت نقش مهمی را ایفا کند. در این پژوهش روش آبیاری قطره‌ای زیرسطحی ذرت به ترتیب با عملکرد خشک و تر 53/26 و 64/76 تن بر هکتار عملکرد بهتری را نسبت به سیستم قطره‌ای سطحی به خود اختصاص داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Corn Evapotranspiration and its Components and Relationship between Leaf Area Index and Components in Surface and Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Dehghanisanij 1
  • Elahe Kanani 2
  • samira akhavan 3
1 Agricultural Engineering Research Institute (AERI) of Karaj
2 Bu-Ali Sina University
3 Bu-Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation from the soil (E) and transpiration through the stomata of plants (T) is important in order to assess biomass production and the allocation of increasingly scarce water resources. Generally, T is the desired component with the water being used to enhance plant productivity; whereas, E is considered a source of water loss or inefficiency, and is the basis of the management and organization of water resources. The present investigation was carried out with the objectives evaluation of corn evapotranspiration and its components and relationship between leaf area index and components in surface and subsurface drip irrigation systems.
Materials and Methods: The pilot farm were located in the water and soil department of the ministry of agriculture in Karaj, Iran (latitude of 51°38 ˊN and longitude of 35°21ˊ W, 1312.5 m above sea level). For implementation project was placed 8 volume micro-lysimeters in the soil, which were filled with soil excavated from the study site. The soil inside of micro-lysimeter and the soil of the surrounding study had the same physical-chemical characteristics. The corn was irrigated with surface drip (DI) and subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) system, that was installed just prior to planting in 2014 in a field that was planted to sprinkler-irrigated corn. Daily crop actual evapotranspiration (ETc) of each micro-lysimeter was calculated by applying the water balance method and soil evaporation was measured with micro-lysimeters. Finally, plant transpiration was calculated from difference between the actual evapotranspiration value and amount of evaporation from the soil surface. Leaf area index (LAI), was measured, and it was measured with the electronic leaf area-meter, CI – 202 seven times during the growing season. This method provides an indication of the plant growth.
Results and Discussion: The obtained results indicated that actual corn evapotranspiration was 377 and 371.92 mm for surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation systems, respectively. The value of corn evapotranspiration under surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation increased from initial, to middle season stages. The maximum daily values of ETc occurred on 48 days after planting in middle season stages. The total value of transpiration plant was 5.88, 76.82 and 118.21 mmd-1 for surface drip irrigation system and 12.78, 81.31 and 118.95 mmd-1 for subsurface drip irrigation system in the initial, advance, and middle season stages, respectively. Sum evaporation from the soil surface and crop transpiration was 200.81 and 176.02 mm for surface drip irrigation system and 213.04 and 158.81 mm for subsurface drip irrigation system. So, amount of evaporation from the soil surface was 73.02, 65.73 and 37.32 mm for surface drip irrigation system and 65, 58.83 and 34.98 mm for subsurface drip irrigation system in the initial, advance, and middle season stages, respectively. In surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation was allocated approximately 93 and 83 percent of evapotranspiration to evaporation from the soil surface respectively. The minimum daily values of E/ETc were 37 and 34 mm for surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation systems respectively, and occurred in middle season stages. Amount of transpiration was 5.88, 76.82 and 118.21 mm for surface drip irrigation system 12.78, 81.31 and 118.95 mm for subsurface drip irrigation for the initial, advance and middle season stages, respectively. The relationship between T/ETc and LAI was fitted to a polynomial equation with significant correlation coefficients, R2 = 0.95 and 0.89 for surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation systems, respectively. T/ETc started from 0 at sowing, and reached to its maximum at the middle growth stage or when LAI reached to about 3.0. Also, the relationship between E/ETc and LAI was fitted to a polynomial equation with significant correlation coefficients, R2 = 0.97 and 0.88 for surface drip and subsurface drip irrigation systems respectively, and reached to its minimum at the middle growth stage. Also the results showed that subsurface drip irrigation systems have higher biological yield and higher values for plant parameters in compared to surface drip irrigation system that it shows subsurface drip irrigation system due to evaporation reduction, better weed control and direct transport of water to the developmental zone has a significant role in increasing corn yield.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that soil evaporation losses in subsurface drip irrigation system had lower than surface drip irrigation system. Also, had higher transpiration in the growth season. This could perform important role on yield of crop. These results should help the precise planning and efficient management of irrigation for these crops in this region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • corn
  • Micro Lysimeter
  • Partitioning
  • Soil evaporation
  • Transpiration
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