##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

علی افشاری حسین خادمی شمس اله ایوبی

چکیده

عناصر سنگین ترکیباتی هستند که به طور طبیعی در خاک وجود دارند یا در نتیجه فعالیت‌های انسان وارد خاک می‌شوند. مهم‌ترین مسیر در معرض قرار گرفتن عناصر سنگین مصرف روزانه مواد غذایی است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین غلظت عناصر سنگین در خاک و برخی محصولات کشاورزی اطراف مناطق شهری و صنعتی زنجان و احتمال خطرپذیری از مصرف آنها انجام گردید. تعداد 75 نمونه خاک سطحی (عمق 0 تا 10 سانتی‌متر) و 101 نمونه از محصولات کشاورزی اطراف مناطق شهری و صنعتی برداشت گردید و تجزیه‌های آزمایشگاهی در نمونه خاک‌ها و گیاهان مختلف انجام شد. میانگین غلظت کل و قابل جذب عناصر به ترتیب برای مس 4/52 و 47/4، روی 8/264 و 15/23، سرب 7/105 و 81/16، نیکل 7/47 و 20/1 و کروم کل 7/21 میلی-گرم برکیلوگرم خاک به دست آمد. همچنین غلظت عناصر سنگین در گیاهان مختلف نشان داد که سبزیجات بیشترین سهم را در جذب و انباشت فلزات نشان می‌دهند. بالاترین مقادیر Zn (شاهی)، Pb (شوید)، Cu (تره)، Ni (ریحان) و Cr (ریحان) به ترتیب با غلظت‌های 25/150، 25/41، 13/23، 46/6 و 47/3 میلی‌گرم برکیلوگرم و کمترین مقدار فلزات مورد بررسی در میوه سیب و بذر گندم و جو مشاهده شد. به صورت کلی میزان جذب فلزات در گیاهان مختلف بدین صورت بدست آمد (Zn>>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cr). فاکتور تجمعی (BAF) فلزات در گیاهان به ترتیب Zn=Cu>Pb>>Cr>Ni حاصل شد. احتمال خطرپذیری (HQ) به بیماری‌های غیرسرطانی برای هر یک از عناصر (به جز سرب) در دو گروه سنی کودکان و بزرگسالان کم‌تر از یک به دست آمد که نشان می‌دهد مصرف‌کنندگان از این محصولات در محدوده امن از نظر تأثیرات سوء بیماری‌های غیرسرطانی قرار گرفتند. همچنین مقدار احتمال خطرپذیری کل (THQ) در کودکان بیشتر از بزرگسالان بدست آمد.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1- Beigi Harchegani H., and Banitalebi G. 2013. The effect of twenty-three years of surface irrigation with treated municipality wastewater on soil loadings, transfer to wheat and corn grains, and related health risks of some heavy metals. Journal of Water and Soil, 27 (3): 570-580. (in Persian with English Abstract)
2- Bi X.Y., Feng X.B., Yang Y.G., Li X.D., Shin G.P.Y., Li F.L., Qiu G.L., Li G.H., Liu T.Z., and Fu Z.Y. 2009. Allocation and source attribution of lead and cadmium in maize (Zeamays L.) impacted by smelting emissions. Environmental Pollution, 157: 834-839.
3- Bo S., Mei L., Tongbin C., Yuanming Z., Yunfeng X., Xiaoyan L., and Ding G. 2009. Assessing the health risk of heavy metals in vegetables to the general population in Beijing, China. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 21: 1720-1709.
4- Boon D.Y., and Soltanpour P.N. 1992. Lead, cadmium and zinc contamination of aspen garden soils and vegetation. Environmental Quality, 21: 82-86.
5- Burt R. 2004. Soil survey laboratory methods manual, soil survey investigations, report No. 42, Version 4.0, USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Lincoln, NE, USA.
6- Chary N.S., Kamala C.T., Raj S.S. 2008. Assessing risk of heavy metals from consuming food grown on sewage irrigated soils and food chain transfer. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 69: 513-524.
7- DeFlora S., Camoirano A., Bagnasco M., Bennicelli C., Corbett G.E., and Kerger B.D. 1997. Estimates of the chromium (VI) reducity in human body compartments as a mechanism for attenuating its potential toxicity and carcinogenicity. Carcinogenesis, 18: 531-537.
8- Ferre-Huguet N., Marti-Cid R., Schuhmacher M., and Domingo J.L. 2008. Risk assessment of metals from consuming vegetables, fruits and rice grown on soils irrigated with waters of the Ebro River in Catalonia, Spain. Biol Trace Elem Res, 123: 66-79.
9- Gruda N. 2005. Impact of environmental factors on product quality of greenhouse vegetables for fresh consumption. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 24: 227-247.
10- Haiyan W., and Stuanes A.O. 2003.Heavy metal pollution in air-water-soil-plant system of Zhuzhou city, Hunan province, China. Water, Air, and Soil pollution, 147: 79-107.
11- Hang X., Wang H., Zhou J., Ma C., Du C., and Chen X. 2009. Risk assessment of potentially toxic element pollution in soils and rise (Oryza sativa) in a typical area of the Yangteze River Delta. Environmental Pollution, 157: 2542-2549.
12- Hoodaji M., and Jalalian A. 2004a. Distribution of Nickel, Manganese and Cadmium in Soil and Crops in the Mobarakeh Steel Plant Region. JWSS - Isfahan University of Technology. 8 (3):55-67. (In Persian with English Abstract)
13-Hoodaji M., and Jalalian A. 2004b. Distribution of Fe, Zn and pb in Soil and Crops in the Mobarakeh Steel Plant Region. Journal of Environmental Studied. 36: 15-26 (In Persian)
14- Huang M., Zhou S., Sun B., and Zhao Q. 2008. Heavy metals in wheat grain: assessment of potential health risk for inhabitants in Kunshan, China. Science of the Total Environment, 405: 54-61.
15- Jia L., Wang W., Li Y., and Yang L. 2010. Heavy metals in soil and crops of an intensively Farmed area: A case study in Yucheng city, Shandong province, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7: 395-412.
16- Joint FAO/WHO export committee on food additives. Summary and conclusions, 53rd meeting. Rome: Joint FAO/WHO, 1999. Technical Report.
17- Kabata-Pendias A., and Pendias H. 2001. Trace elements in soils and plants. Third Ed. CRC Press. Boca Raton, London.
18- Karami M., Afyuni M., Rezainejad Y., and Schulin R. 2009. Heavy metal uptake by wheat from a sewage sludge-amended calcareous soil.NutrCyclAgroecosyst. 83: 51-61.
19-Kheirabadi H., Afyuni M., Barzin M., Soffianian A., and Ayoubi Sh. 2012.Evaluation risk assessment of heavy metal in potato and wheat consumption in the Hamadan Province.12th Congress of Soil Science, 12-14 August, Tabriz, Iran.(In Persian)
20- Li, X., and Feng, L. 2012. Multivariate and geostatistical analyzes of metals in urban soil of Weinan industrial areas, Northwest of China. Atmospheric Environment, 47: 58-65.
21- Lindsay W.L., and Norvell W.A. 1978. Development of DTPA test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 42: 421-428.
22- Luo C., Liu C., Wang Y., Liu X., Li F., Zhang G., and Li X. 2011. Heavy metal contamination in soils and vegetable near an e-waste processing site, south China. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186: 481-490.
23- Martines L.L., and Mourato P.M. 2006. Effect of excess copper on tomato plants: Growth parameters, enzyme, chlorophyll, and mineral content. J Plant Nutr, 29: 2179-2198.
24- Nannoni F., Protano G. and Riccobono F. 2011. Fractionation and geochemical mobility of heavy elements in soils of a mining area in northern Kosovo.Geoderma, 161: 63-73.
25- National environmental protection agency of China. 2001. Safety quality standard for non-environmental pollution vegetable (GB/T 18407.1-2001).
26-Nazemi S., Asgari A.R., and Raei M .2010. Survey the amount of heavy metals in cultural vegetables in suburbs of Shahroud. Iran J. Health & Environ, 3 (2): 195-202. (In Persian with English Abstract)
27- Qian Y.Z., Chen C., Zhang Q., Li Y., Chen Zhijan, and Li M. 2010. Concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in Chinese market milled rice and associated population health risk. Food Control, 21: 1757-1763.
28- Qishlaqi A., Moor F., and Forghani G. 2008. Impact of untreated wastewater irrigation on soil and crops in Shiraz suburban area, SW Iran. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 141: 257-273.
29- Rashed N. 2010. Monitoring of contamination toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild.Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178: 739-746.
30- Robson M. 2003. Methodologies for assessing exposures to metals: human host factors. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 56: 104-109.
31- Sposito G., Land L.J., and Chang A.C. 1982. Trace metal chemistry in aird-zone field soils amended with sewage sludge: I .Fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in solid phases. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 46: 260-264.
32- Tessier A., Campbell P.G.C., and Bisson M. 1979. Sequential extraction procedures for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51: 844-851.
33-Torabian A., and Mahjouri M 2002. Heavy metals uptake by vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater in south Tehran. Science of Soil and Water, 16 (2): 188-196. (In Persian with English Abstract)
34- USEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). 1989. Risk assessment guidance for superfund. Human health evaluation manual part A. EPA/540/1-89/002.Office of health and environmental assessment, Washington, DC, USA.
35- USEPA, IRIS 2006. United States, Environmental Protection Agency, Integrated Risk Information System. http://www.epa.gov/iris/subst.
36- Wang X., Sato T., Xing B., and Tao S. 2005. Health risks of heavy metals to the gereral public in Tianjin, China via consumption of vegetables and fish. Science of the Total Environment, 350: 28-37.
37- Wanger G.L. 1993. Accumulation of cadmium in crop plants and its consequences to human health. Adv. Agron. 51: 173-212.
38- Wilde S.A., Corey R.B., and Iyer J.G. 1979. Soils and plant analysis for tree culture.Part 3.Analysis of plant tissue. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, pp 93-106.
39- Zhao F.J., Su Y.H., Dunham S.J., Rakszegi M., Bedo Z., McGrath S.P., Shewry P.R. 2009. Variation in mineral micronutrient concentrations in grain of wheat lines of diverse origin. Journal of Cereal Science, 49: 290-295.
40- Zheng N., Wang Q., and Zheng D. 2007. Health risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu to the inhabitants around Huludao Zinc plant in China via consumption of vegetables. Science of the Total Environment, 383: 81-89.
41- Yu G.B., Liu Y., Yu S., Wu S.C., leung A.O.W., Luo X.S., Xu B., Li H.B. and Wong M.H. 2011. Inconsistency and comprehensiveness of risk assessments for heavy metals in urban surface sediments. Chemosphere, 85: 1080-1087.
ارجاع به مقاله
افشاریع., خادمیح., & ایوبیش. ا. (2015). ارزیابی خطرپذیری آلودگی عناصر سنگین در خاک ها و برخی محصولات کشاورزی در اطراف شهر و مناطق صنعتی زنجان. آب و خاک, 29(1), 151-163. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v0i0.27750
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی