##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

الهام ملک زاده جعفر مجیدی ناصر علی اصغرزاد جلال عبدالعلی زاده

چکیده

گلومالین به عنوان گلیکوپروتئین شناخته شده در قارچ‏های میکوریزی شاخه گلومرومایکوتا و راسته گلومرال با دو روش بردفورد و آنتی‏بادی مونوکلونال اندازه‏گیری می‏شود. با این پیش فرض که تنش ناشی از فلز سمی منجر به افزایش بیان و تولید گلومالین به عنوان پروتئین شوک حرارتی می‏گردد، پژوهشی جهت مطالعه و مقایسه مقدار گلومالین تولیدی در شرایط کشت گلدانی در همزیستی قارچ رایزوفاگوس ایرگولاریز با گیاه شبدر سفید (Trifolium repens L.) و کشت درون شیشه‏ای در همزیستی ریشه‏های تراریخت هویج (Daucus carota L.) با همان قارچ تحت تنش سرب طراحی گردید. در کشت درون شیشه‏ای با افزایش غلظت سرب (0، 01/0، 1/0 و 1 میلی‏مولار Pb+2) مجموع درصد فراوانی هیف و اسپور کاهش یافت درحالی که پروتئین واکنش‏پذیر بردفورد و پروتئین واکنش پذیر با آنتی بادی در بخش هیفی افزایش یافت. در کشت گلدانی با افزایش غلظت سرب (0، 150، 300 و 450 میکرومولار Pb+2) درصد طول ریشه‏ کلنی‏شده نسبت به شاهد افزایش نشان داد. به طور کلی با افزایش غلظت سرب، پروتئین واکنش‏پذیر بردفورد و پروتئین واکنش پذیر با آنتی‏بادی در بخش هیفی و ریشه‏ای کشت گلدانی افزایش یافت. آنتی بادی مونوکلونال واکنش متقاطع ناچیزی با پروتئین‏های ریشه‏های غیرمیکوریزی نشان داد. بنابراین تولید گلومالین از طریق ممانعت از تغییر شکل پروتئین‏های مهم و حیاتی گیاه به عنوان پروتئین شوک حرارتی، ساز و کار حفاظتی قارچ های میکوریز آربوسکولار در همزیستی با گیاه برای کاهش تنش ناشی از سرب می‏باشد.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1- Aguilera P., Borie F., Seguel A., and Cornejo P. 2011. Fluorescence detection of aluminum in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal structures and glomalin by using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43: 2417–31.
2- Ali H., Khan E., and Sajad M.A. 2013. Phytoremediation of heavy metals—concepts and applications. Chemosphere, 91: 869–81.
3- Arnaud St., Hamel M.C., Vimard B., Caron M., and Fortin J.A. 1996. Enhanced hyphal growth and spore production of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices in an in vitro system in absence of host roots. Mycological Research, 100: 328–332.
4- Audet P., and Charest C. 2009. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to in vitro root metal uptake: From trace to toxic metal conditions. Botany, 87(10), 913-921.
5- Bai C., He X., Tang H., Shan B., and Zhao L. 2009. Spatial distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, glomalin and soil enzymes under the canopy of Astragalus adsurgens Pall. in the Mu Us sand land, China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41: 941-947.
6- Bedini S., Pellegrino E., Avio L., Pellegrin, S., Bazzoffi P., Argese E., and Giovannetti M. 2009. Changes in soil aggregation and glomalin-related soil protein content as affected by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal species Glomus mosseae and Glomus intraradices. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41:1491-1496.
7- Bradford M.M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72: 248-254.
8- Bressano M., Curetti M., Giachero L., Gil S.V., Cabello M., March G., Ducasse D.A., and Luna C.M. 2010. Mycorrhizal fungi symbiosis as a strategy against oxidative stress in soybean plants. Journal of Plant Physiology, 167(18): 1622- 1626.
9- Cornejo P., Meier S., Borie G., Rillig M.C., and Borie F. 2008. Glomalin-related soil protein in a Mediterranean ecosystem affected by a copper smelter and its contribution to Cu and Zn sequestration. Science of the Total Environment, 406: 154-160.
10- Dhala B., Thatoib H.N., Dasc N.N., and Pandeya B.D. 2013. Chemical and microbial remediation of hexavalent chromium from contaminated soil and mining/metallurgical solid waste: a review. Journal of Hazardous Material, 250–251: 272–91.
11- Driver J.D., Holben W.E., and Rillig M.C. 2005. Characterization of glomalin as a hyphal wall component of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 37: 101-106.
12- Gadkar V., and Rillig M.C. 2006. The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal protein glomalin is a putative homologof heat shock protein60. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 263: 93-101.
13- Giovannetti M., and Mosse B. 1980. An evaluation of techniques for measuring vesicular-arbuscular infection in roots. New Phytologist, 84: 489-500.
14- Gohre V., and Paszkowski U. 2006. Contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to heavy metal phytoremediation. Planta, 223: 1115–1122.
15- Gonzalez-Chavez M.C., Carrillo-Gonzalez R., Wright S.F., and Nichols K.A. 2004. The role of glomalin, a protein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in sequestering potentially toxic elements. Environmental Pollution, 130: 317-323.
16- Hammer E.C., and Rillig M.C. 2011. The Influence of different stresses on glomalin levels in an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus- salinity increases glomalin content. Public Library of Science, Open-access, 6(21): 1-5 (e28426). www.plosone.org.
17- Harner M.J., Ramsey P.W., and Rillig M.C. 2004. Protein accumulation and distribution in floodplain soils and river foam. Ecology Letters, 7: 829-836.
18- Hildebrandt U., Kaldorf M. and Bothe H. 1999. The zinc violet and its colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Journal of Plant Physiology, 154: 709–717.
19- Janouskova M., Pavlikova D., Macek T., and Vosatka M. 2005. Arbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted metallothionein. Plant and Soil, 272: 29–40.
20- Janoušková M., and Vosatká M. 2005. Response to cadmium of Daucus carotahairy roots dual cultures with Glomus intraradices or Gigaspora margarita. Mycorrhiza, 15: 217-224.
21- Khan A.G. 2006. Mycorrhizoremediation—an enhanced form of phytoremediation. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 7(7): 503–14.
22- Kohler J., Caravaca F., del Mar Alguacil M., and Roldán A. 2009a. Elevated CO2 increases the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and a plant-growthpromoting rhizobacterium on structural stability of a semiarid agricultural soil under drought conditions. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41:1710-1716.
23- Kohler J., Caravaca F., and Roldán A. 2009b. Effect of drought on the stability of rhizosphere soil aggregates of Lactuca sativa grown in a degraded soil inoculated with PGPR and AM fungi. Applied Soil Ecology, 42: 160-165.
24- Kormanik P.P., and McGraw A.C. 1982. Quantification of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae in plant roots. p. 37-45. In N.C. Schenck (ed.) Methods and principles of mycorrhizal research. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul.
25- Leung H., Ye Z., and Wong M. 2007. Survival strategies of plants associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on toxic mine tailings. Chemosphere, 66: 905-915.
26- Lovelock C.E., Wright S.F., Clark D.A., and Ruess R.W. 2004a. Soil stocks of glomalin produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across a tropical rain forest landscape. Journal of Ecology, 92:278-287.
27- Lovelock C.E., Wright S.F., and Nichols K.A. 2004b. Using glomalin as an indicator for arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphal growth: an example from a tropical rainforest soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36: 1009-1012.
28- Lutgen E.R., Muir-Clairmont D., Graham J., and Rillig M.C. 2003. Seasonality of arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and glomalin in a western Montana grassland. Plant and Soil, 257:71-83.
29- Meier S., Borie F., Bolan N., and Cornejo P. 2012a. Phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Crest, 42: 744–75.
30- Meier S., Borie F., Curaqueo G., Bolan N., and Cornejo P. 2012b. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation on metallophyte and agricultural plants growing at increasing copper levels. Applied Soil Ecology, 61: 280–7.
31- Millner P.D., and Kitt D.G. 1992. The Beltsville method for soilless production of vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza, 2: 9-15.
32- Nichols K.A. 1999. Role of iron in the accumulation of glomalin, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal glycoprotein. Master’s Thesis, West Virginia University.
33- Nichols K.A., and Wright S.F. 2004. Contributions of fungi to soil organic matter in agroecosystems. P. 179-198. In F. Magdoff and R.R. Weil (eds.) Soil Organic Matter in Sustainable Agriculture, CRC Press, Florida.
34- Pawlowska T.E., and Charvat I. 2004. Heavy-metal stress and developmental patterns of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70: 6643–6649.
35- Rillig M.C. 2004. Arbuscular mycorrhizae, glomalin, and soil quality. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 84:355-363.
36- Rillig M.C., Ramsey P.W., Morris S., and Paul E.A. 2003. Glomalin, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal soil protein, responds to land-use change. Plant and Soil, 253: 293-299.
37- Rillig M.C., and Steinberg P.D. 2002. Glomalin production by an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungu: a mechanism of habitat modification? Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34: 1371-1374.
38- Roberts P., and Jones D.L. 2008. Critical evaluation of methods for determining total protein in soil solution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40:1485-1495.
39- Rosier C.L., Hoye A.T., and Rillig M.C. 2006. Glomalin-related soil protein: Assessment of current detection and quantification tools. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 38: 2205-2211.
40- Rosier C.L., Piotrowski J.S., Hoye A.T., and Rillig M.C. 2008. intraradical protein and glomalin as a tool for quantifying arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonization. Pedobiologia, 52: 41-50.
41- Schlesinger M.J. 1990. Heat-shock proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 265: 12111–12114.
42- Shaabani Zenoozagh V., Aliasgharzad N., and Oustan Sh. 2013. Glomalin production by two glomeral fungi in symbiosis with corn plant under different Pb levels. International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review, 3 (4): 854-863.
43- Steinberg P.D., and Rillig M.C. 2003. Differential decomposition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae and glomalin. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 35:191-194.
44- Treseder K.K., and Turner K.M. 2007. Glomalin in ecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71: 1257-1266.
45- USEPA. 1996. Report: recent Developments for In Situ Treatment of Metals contaminated Soils, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.
46- Vodnik D., Grčman H., Maček I., van Elteren J.T., and Kovačevič M. 2008. The contribution of glomalin-related soil protein to Pb and Zn sequestration in polluted soil. Science of the Total Environment, 392: 130-136.
47- Weissenhorn I., Leyval C., and Berthelin J. 1995b. Bioavailability of heavy metals and abundance of arbuscular mycorrhiza in a soil polluted by atmospheric deposition from a smelter. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 19: 22-28.
48- Whiffen L.K., Midgley D.J., and McGee P.A. 2007. Polyphenolic compounds interfere with quantification of protein in soil extracts using the Bradford method. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 39:691-694.
49- Wright S.F. 2000. A fluorescent antibody assay for hyphae and glomalin from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil, 226: 171-177.
50- Wright S.F., Franke-Synder M., Morton J.B., and Upadhyaya A. 1996. Time-course study and partial characterization of a protein on hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi during active colonization of roots. Plant and Soil, 181: 193-203.
51- Wright S.F., and Upadhyaya A. 1996. Extraction of an abundant and unusual protein from soil and comparison with hyphal protein of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Soil Science, 161: 575-585.
52- Wright S.F., and Upadhyaya A. 1998. A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil, 198: 97-107.
53- Wright S.F., and Upadhyaya A. 1999. Quantification of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi activity by the glomalin concentration on hyphal traps. Mycorrhiza, 8: 283–285.
ارجاع به مقاله
ملک زادها., مجیدیج., علی اصغرزادن., & عبدالعلی زادهج. (2016). اثر سرب بر مقدار گلومالین هیفی و ریشه ‏ای واکنش ‏پذیر با آنتی ‏بادی مونوکلونال و بردفورد در شرایط کشت درون شیشه‏ ای و گلدانی. آب و خاک, 30(2), 605-617. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v30i2.47802
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی