##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

هانیه جعفری وفا فایز رییسی

چکیده

استفاده از پسماندهای آلی همچون لجن فاضلاب در خاک های کشاورزی با ماده ی آلی کم شیوه ای متداول برای اصلاح و بهبود شرایط خاک محسوب می شود. با این حال، مصرف لجن فاضلاب ممکن است از طریق افزایش سوبسترای قابل دسترس و به عنوان یک منبع غذایی، اثر جانوران خاک به ویژه کرم خاکی برشاخص‌های زیستی نظیر فعالیت میکروبی و آنزیمی و در پی آن کیفیت میکروبیولوژیک خاک را تغییر دهد. به همین دلیل هدف این پژوهش ارزیابی عکس‌العمل ویژگی‌های میکروبیولوژیکی و بیوشیمیایی خاک به مصرف لجن فاضلاب در حضور کرم خاکی بود. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل لجن فاضلاب (در دو سطح بدون لجن فاضلاب و 5/1 درصد لجن فاضلاب) به عنوان فاکتور اول و کرم خاکی [در چهار سطح بدون کرم خاکی، گونه ی آیزنیافتیدا (اپی‌ژئیک)، گونه ی آلولوبوفورا کالیژینوزا (اندوژئیک) و مخلوط دو گونه] به عنوان فاکتور دوم بودند که به صورت فاکتوریل 4×2 در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار و شرایط گلخانه برای مدت ۹۰ روز اجرا شد. نتایج تجزیه ی عامل نشان داد که سه مؤلفه ی اول دارای ارزش ویژه ی بیشتر از یک بوده و جمعاً 89 درصد تغییرات را توجیه کردند. بر اساس نمودار دو بعدی اغلب ویژگی های میکروبی خاک با مصرف لجن فاضلاب افزایش یافتند که این اثر مثبت به دلیل بالا بودن میزان مواد آلی و عناصر غذایی و همچنین غلظت پایین فلزات سنگین در این پسماند آلی بود. همچنین با مصرف لجن، وابستگی گونه ی آیزنیافتیدا به ریزجانداران به عنوان منبع غذایی کاهش یافت ولی گونه ی آلولوبوفورا کالیژینوزا به دلیل تغذیهی انتخابی از ریزجانداران، همچنان به زیستتودهی میکروبی وابسته بود و اثرات مثبت به همراه داشت.

جزئیات مقاله

مراجع
1. Aira M., and Dominguez J. 2009. Microbial and nutrient stabilization of two animal manures after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161: 1234-1238.
2. Alef K., and Kleiner D. 1987. Applicability of arginine ammonification as an indicator of microbial activity in different soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 5: 148-151.
3. Alef K., and Nannipieri P. 1995. Enzyme activities. p. 311-373. In K. Alef and P. Nannipieri (ed.) Methods in applied soil microbiology and biochemistry. Academic Press, New York.
4. Amlinger F., Pollak M., and Favoino E. 2004. Heavy metals and organic compounds from wastes used as organic fertilizers. European Union, ANNEX2-Compost quality definition, legislation and standards.
5. Ananyeva N.D., Susyan E.A., Chernova O.V., Chernove I.Y., and Makarova O.L. 2006. The ratio of fungi and bacteria in the biomass of different types of soil determined by selective inhibition. Microbiologiya, 6: 807-813.
6. Anderson J.P.E. 1982. Soil respiration. p. 831–871. In A.L. Page and Miller R.H. (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. ASA, Madison, WI.
7. Andrews S.S., Karlen D.L., and Mitchell J.P., 2002. A comparison of soil quality indexing methods for vegetable production systems in northern California. Agricultural, Ecosystem and Environment, 90: 25-45.
8. Bartholomew D.J., Steele F., Moustaki I., and Galbraith J. 2008. Analysis of Multivariate Social Science Data. Chapman and hall, London, UK.
9. Bergkvist P., Jarvis N., Berggren D., and Carlgren K. 2003. Long-term effects of sewage sludge application availability and distribution in arable soil. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 97: 167-179.
10. Birkhofer K., Bezemer T.M., Bloem J., Bonkowski M., Christensen S., Dobius D., Ekelund F., Fliebach A., Gunst L., Hedlund K., Mader P., Mikola J., Robin C., Setala H., Tatin-Froex F., Van der Putten W.H., and Scheu S. 2008. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43: 2297-2308.
11. Blagodatskaya E., and Kuzyakov Y. 2013. Active microorganisms in soil: critical review of estimation criteria and approaches. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 67: 192-211.
12. Bremner J.M. 1996. Nitrogen total. p. 1085-1121. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. SSSA, Madison, WI.
13. Corre M.D., Schnabel R.R., and Shaffer J.A. 1999. Evaluation of soil organic carbon under forests, cool-season and warm-season grasses in the northeastern US. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 31: 1531-1539.
14. Degens B.P., Schipper L.A., Sparling G.P., and Ducan L.C. 2001. Is the microbial community in a soil with reduced catabolic diversity less resistant to stress or disturbance? Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33: 1143-1153.
15. Dindar E., Sagban F.O.T., Alkan U., and Baskaya H.S. 2013. Effects of canned food industry sludge amendment on enzyme activities in soil with earthworms. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 12: 2407-2416.
16. Du Y.L., He M.M., Xu M., Yan Z.G., Zhou Y.Y., Guo G.L., Nie J., Wang L.Q., Hou H., and Li F.S. 2014. Interactive effects between earthworms and maize plants on the accumulation and toxicity of soil cadmium. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 72: 193-202.
17. Edwards C.A., and Bohlen P.J. 1996. Biology and Ecology of Earthworms. Chapman and hall, London, UK.
18. Fernandez J.M., Plaza C., Garcia-Gil J.C., and Polo A. 2009. Biochemical properties and barley yield in a semiarid Mediterranean soil amended with two kinds of sewage sludge. Applied Soil Ecology, 42: 18-24.
19. Fernandez S.A.P., Bettiol W., and Cerri C.C. 2005. Effect of sewage sludge on microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic quotient and soil enzymatic activity. Applied Soil Ecology, 30: 65-77.
20. Garcia-Ruiz R., Ochoa V., Hinojosa M.B., and Carreira J.A. 2008. Suitability of enzyme activities for the monitoring of soil quality improvement in organic agricultural systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40: 2137-2145.
21. Hong H.N., Rumpel C., Tureaux T.H.D., Bardoux G., Billou D., Duc T.T., and jouquet P. 2011. How do earthworms influence organic matter quantity and quality in tropical soils? Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43: 223-230.
22. Horwath W.R., and Paul E.A. 1994. Microbial biomass. pp. 753-775. In D.R. Buxton (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Microbiological and biochemical properties. ASA, Madison, WI.
23. Karami M., Afyuni M., Rezainejad Y., and Schulin R. 2009. Heavy metal uptake by wheat from a sewage sludge-amended calcareous soil. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 83:51-61.
24. Landi L., Renella g., Moreno J.L., Falchini L., and Nannipieri P. 2000. Influence of cadmium on the metabolic quotient, L-:D- glutamic acid respiration ratio and enzyme activity: microbial biomass ratio under laboratory conditions. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 32: 8-16.
25. Lindsay W.L., and Norvell W.A. 1978. Development of a DTPA soil test for zinc, iron, manganese, and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42:421-428.
26. Liu J., Xie J., Chu Y., Sun C., Chen C., and Wang Q. 2008. Combined effect of cypermethrin and copper on catalase activity in soil. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 8: 327-332.
27. Mench M., Renella G., Gelsomino A., Landi L., and Nannipieri P. 2006. Biochemical parameters and by sludge-borne metals and remediated with inorganic soil amendments. Environmental Pollution, 144: 24-31.
28. Mohammadi J. 2006. Pedometry: Classical statistics. Pelk Publisher, Tehran. (in Persian)
29. Nannipieri P., Ascher J., Cecchrini M.J., Landi L., Pietramellara G., and Renella G. 2003. Microbial diversity and soil functions. European Journal of Soil Science, 54: 655-670.
30. Nelson D.W., and Sommers L.E. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. p. 961-1011 .In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods. ASA, Madison, WI.
31. Olsen S.R., and Sommers L.E. 1982. Phosphorus. p. 403-430. In A.L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. ASA, Madison, WI.
32. Ovalles F.A., and Collins M.E. 1988. Variability of northwest Florida soils by principal component analysis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 52: 1430-1435.
33. Pang J.Z., Qiao Y.H., Sun Z.J., Zhang S.X., Li Y.L., and Zhang R.Q. 2012. Effects of epigeic earthworms on decomposition of wheat straw and nutrient cycling in agricultural soils in a reclaimed salinity area: a microcosm study. Pedosphere, 22: 726-735.
34. Rhodes J.D. 1996. Salinity: electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids. p. 417-435. In D.L. Sparks (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical properties. SSSA, Madison, WI.
35. Sharma S. 1996. Applied Multivariate Techniques. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
36. Shirani H., Hajabbasi M.A., Afyuni M., and Hemmat A. 2002. Effect of farmyard and tillage systems on soil physical properties and corn yield in central Iran. Soil and Tillage Research, 68: 101-108.
37. Sposito G., Lund J.L., and Chang A.C. 1982. Trace metal chemistry in arid-zone field soils amended with sewage sludge: I. fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb in solid phases. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 46: 260-264.
38. Tahmasebi P. 2011. Multivariate analysis in environmental science and natural resources. Shahrekord University publisher. (in Persian)
39. Tejada M. 2009. Application of different organic wastes in a soil polluted by cadmium: effects on soil biological properties. Geoderma, 153: 254-268.
40. Thomas. G.W. 1996. Soil pH and soil acidity. p. 475-483. In D.L. Sparks (ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical properties. SSSA and ASA, Madison, WI.
41. Xing M., Yang j., Wang Y., Liu J., and Yu F. 2011. A comparative study of synchronous treatment of sewage and sludge by two vermifiltrations using an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. Journal of Hazardous Material, 185: 881-888.
42. Zarei V., and Sheklabadi M. 2015. Assessing soil quality in different land uses using multivariate analysis. Science and Technology of agriculture and natural resources, Water and Soil Science, 70: 101-110. (in Persian with English abstract)
43. Zhang B. Li G., Shen T., Wang J., and Sun Z. 2000. Changes in microbial biomass C, N and P and enzyme activities in soil incubated with the earthworms Metaphire guillelmi or Eisenia fetida. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32: 2055-2062.
ارجاع به مقاله
جعفری وفاه., & رییسیف. (2016). ارزیابی اثر کرم خاکی و لجن فاضلاب شهری بر کیفیت میکروبیولوژیک و بیوشیمیایی خاک با استفاده از روش تجزیه ی چند متغیره. آب و خاک, 31(1), 168-178. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v31i1.50082
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی