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علی رضا واعظی مهدی عبادی

چکیده

رواناب سطحی یکی از عوامل مهم‌ در انتقال ذرات خاک و در نتیجه فرسایش سطحی خاک است. شدت باران و شیب سطح دو عامل مهم و تأثیرگذار در فرسایش سطحی می باشند. در این پژوهش، انتقال پذیری ذرات اولیه خاک به وسیله رواناب سطحی بر روی یک خاک میان بافت (رس لومی) در نه شدت باران ( از 10 تا 90 میلی متر بر ساعت) و پنج درجه شیب ( از صفر تا 40 درصد) به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام گرفت. فرسایش سطحی و توزیع اندازه ذرات فرسایش یافته با استفاده از فلوم هایی به ابعاد cm 32 × 50 تحت باران های شبیه سازی شده به مدت 45 دقیقه اندازه گیری شد. بر اساس نتایج، شدت باران 20 میلی متر بر ساعت به عنوان آستانه شدت باران و شیب 10 درصد، به عنوان آستانه شیب برای وقوع فرسایش سطحی خاک بود. میزان فرسایش سطحی تحت تأثیر شدت باران (001/0>P) و شیب سطح (001/0>P) قرار گرفت به طوری که با افزایش شدت بارندگی و شیب سطح، میزان فرسایش سطحی به طور چشم گیری افزایش یافت. تفاوت اساسی بین ذرات اولیه خاک از نظر ویژگی انتقال پذیری وجود داشت. انتقال پذیری ذرات توسط جریان سطحی نیز به شدت تحت تأثیر شدت باران (001/0>P) و شیب سطح (001/0>P) قرار گرفت. با افزایش شدت باران انتقال پذیری ذرات سیلت افزایش و انتقال پذیری ذرات شن کاهش یافت. میزان انتقال ذرات رس تحت تأثیر شیب سطح قرار نگرفت. با وجود آن که میزان انتقال ذرات شن (به جز شن بسیار درشت) با افزایش شیب به شدت کاهش یافت، انتقال پذیری ذرات سیلت و رس تحت تأثیر شیب سطح قرار نگرفت. ذرات سیلت بیشترین سهم مواد فرسایش یافته را شامل شدند. حساسیت ذاتی بالای ذرات سیلت و حتی رس به فرسایش سطحی عواملی بودند که موجب شدند با افزایش درجه شیب، انتقال آن ها تحت تأثیر قرار نگیرد. با توجه به سهم بسیار بالای ذرات سیلت در هدررفت خاک، این ذره به عنوان حساس ترین ذره خاک در برابر فرآیندهای فرسایش آبی شناخته شد.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
واعظیع. ر., & عبادیم. (2016). توزیع اندازه ذرات منتقله در اثر فرسایش سطحی در شدت‌های مختلف باران و درجات شیب. آب و خاک, 31(1), 216-229. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v31i1.52176
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی