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فرزاد مندنی بابک غلامی علیرضا باقری غلامرضا محمدی

چکیده

مصرف بیش از حد نیتروژن باعث آبشویی نیترات و آلودگی آب¬های زیرزمینی می¬شود، بنابراین اطلاع از توزیع اشکال مختلف نیتروژن و چگونگی حرکت آن¬ها در خاک اهمیت بالایی دارد. به منظور شبیه¬سازی اثر کود نیتروژن بر رشد و عملکرد گندم و همچنین تغییرات نیتروژن خاک و گیاه با استفاده از مدل CERES-Wheat، دو آزمایش در سال زراعی 1395-1394 اجرا شد. هر دو آزمایش در قالب طرح پایه بلوک¬های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل کاربرد سطوح کود نیتروژن (90، 180، 300 و360 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار) بود. از نتایج یک آزمایش به منظور استخراج ضرایب ژنتیکی و واسنجی مدل و از دیگری به منظور ارزیابی مدل استفاده شد. نتایج واسنجی نشان داد که مدل قادر است با حداقل اختلاف ویژگی¬های رشد و نمو گندم را شبیه¬سازی کند که بیانگر دقت بالای ضرایب ژنتیکی محاسبه شده بود. نتایج ارزیابی¬ها نشان داد که مدل قادر بود با دقت بالای صفات مورد ارزیابی گندم را شبیه سازی کند، بطوریکه میزان جذر میانگین مربعات خطای نرمال شده برای مراحل نموی، وزن خشک کل و عملکرد دانه به ترتیب در حدود 7 تا 8، 5 تا 9 و 11 تا 17 درصد میانگین مشاهدات بود. نتایج شبیه¬سازی¬ها نشان داد، همزمان با کاربرد کود اوره محتوای یون¬های نیترات و آمونیوم خاک افزایش یافت. بیشترین میزان نیترات در تیمارهای 90، 180، 300 و 360 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار به ترتیب حدود 3/41، 5/54، 1/72 و 9/80 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن، مقدار آبشویی نیتروژن نیز به شدت افزایش یافت، به طوری¬که میزان هدر رفت نیتروژن در تیمارهای 90 ، 180، 300 و 360 کیلوگرم اوره در هکتار به ترتیب حدود 3/259، 2/276، 4/310 و 5/335 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. همچنین با افزایش کاربرد کود اوره میزان نیتروژن در اندام¬های هوایی و دانه گندم افزایش یافت. بطورکلی نتایج این بررسی نشان داد که مدل CERES-Wheat توانایی قابل قبولی در شبیه سازی تغییرات وضعیت نیتروژن خاک و گیاه دارد.

جزئیات مقاله

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ارجاع به مقاله
مندنیف., غلامیب., باقریع., & محمدیغ. (2018). شبیه سازی تغییرات نیتروژن خاک و گیاه توسط مدل CERES-Wheat. آب و خاک, 32(4), 691-707. https://doi.org/10.22067/jsw.v32i4.70443
نوع مقاله
علمی - پژوهشی