عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Suitable management of water and fertilizer is one of the important factors, affecting water and fertilizer efficiency and environmental pollution. In this study, nitrate deep leaching was evaluated in a furrow irrigated experimental field in Karaj. Experiments were conducted in randomized complete blocks in free-drainage furrows having 162 m length in 12 experimental blocks. The first factor consisted of 60%, 80% 100% and 120% of required irrigation water and the second factor 60%, 80% and 100% of nitrate fertilizer requirement applied by fertigation method. Nitrogen requirement was determined based on soil analysis and applied in four stages of the crop growth: before cultivation, in seven leaves, shooting and earring stages in which the first part (before cultivation) was applied by manual distribution and other three parts by fertigation. To determine soil nitrate concentrations, soil samples were taken from depths 20, 40, 60, and 80 cm in all of treatments. After air-drying, soil samples were passed through 2 mm sieve. Then, nitrate concentration of samples were analyzed by spectra photometer. Nitrate losses through runoff were measured by sampling of outlet water. Accumulated nitrate in maize was determined by randomized sampling of plants in all treatments. Finally, to determine nitrate leaching, nitrate mass balance was made. Results showed that 120% water level treatment provided 12% water deep percolation from root zone, while 60% water level treatment resulted in 4.5% water deep percolation. Both water and fertilizer levels had pronounced effect on nitrate leaching. The highest nitrate leaching occurred in 100% fertilizer level treatment decreasing by water reduction level. In some cases such as 80% fertilizer level, water level of 60% and 80% didn’t have any effect on nitrate deep percolation. Therefore, water level selection in this situation depends on other factors such as yield. Considering maize as a plant with root depth to be about 80 cm, water and nitrate deep percolation was evaluated up to 80 cm soil depth for all treatments. 60% and 80% water levels did not provide nitrate leaching below the mentioned root zone depth.