تعیین موازنه آبی و مراحل بحرانی آن در گندم دیم با استفاده از شاخص تنش آبی گیاه (CWSI)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

به منظور تعیین آستانه تنش آبی و وضعیت آن در ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم دیم در مدیریت‌های مختلف مصرف نیتروژن، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی، به صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد شده با دو زمان مصرف (کل در پائیز و در پائیز و در بهار) و چهار سطح نیتروژن (صفر، 30، 60 و 90 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بر روی 7 ژنوتیپ گندم در سه بلوک در سال زراعی 90-1389 به اجرا درآمد. همچنین برای محاسبه پارامترهای شاخص تنش آبی، ژنوتیپ‌های‌ مورد نظر در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی در نزدیک‌ترین فاصله با آزمایش قبل کشت شدند. دمای پوشش سبز در مراحل گلدهی و اوایل خمیری شدن اندازه‌گیری و شاخص تنش آبی گیاه (CWSI) محاسبه شد. حد مبنای پائین با مفهوم شرایط بدون تنش (Tc-Ta=4.523-3.761×VPD; R2=0.92) و حد مبنای بالا با مفهوم حداکثر تنش (Tc-Ta=6 °C) و شرایط بدون تعرق برای گندم دیم تعیین شد. آستانه تنش آبی گیاه 4/0=CWSI محاسبه شد که عبور از آن 8 روز قبل از مرحله سنبله‌دهی اتفاق افتاد. در آستانه تنش آبی، مجموع 60 میلی‌متری از آب قابل استفاده تا عمق 50 سانتی‌متری پروفیل تخلیه شد. همچنین بین شاخص CWSI و عملکرد دانه در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن همبستگی منفی معنی‌داری (01/0>p) وجود داشت. مصرف نیتروژن منجر به کاهش تنش آبی و افزایش عملکرد دانه شد. در مصرف تقسیطی و پائیزی N30 بهترین ژنوتیپ‌ها از لحاظ عملکرد دانه و مقاومت به تنش آبی به ترتیب اوحدی و رصد و در مصرف تقسیطی و پائیزی N60 به ترتیب ژنوتیپ‌های Cereal4 و رصد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Soil and Plant Water Balance and Its Critical Stages for Rainfed Wheat Using Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI)

نویسندگان [English]

  • V. Feiziasl
  • A. Fotovat
  • A. Astaraei
  • A. Lakzian
  • M.A. Mousavi Shalmani
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

In order to determination of water stress threshold and dryland wheat genotypes water status in different nitrogen managements, this experiment was carried out in split split plot RCBD design in three replications in 2010-2011 cropping year. Treatments included: N application time (whole fertilization of N at planting time , and its split fertilization as 2/3 at planting time and 1/3 in early spring), N rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and 7 wheat genotypes. Also these genotypes were grown in supplemental irrigation condition for calculation of crop water stress index (CWSI) parameters. Canopy temperature (Tc) was measured in flowering and early milking stages. Crop water stress index (CWSI) was calculated. A non-water stressed baseline (lower baseline) were fitted as Tc-Ta=4.523-3.761×VPD; R2=0.92 and non-transpiring baseline (upper baseline) determined 6 ºC for rainfed wheat genotypes. Water stress threshold was 0.4 and crossing of that occurred 8 days before heading stage. In water stress threshold boundary, was depleted 60 mm available water from 0 to 50 cm soil depth. There was negative significant relationship (p >0.01) between CWSI and grain yield in all treatments and different nitrogen rates. Nitrogen application reduced water stress and increased grain yield of rainfed wheat genotypes. Ohadi and Rasad genotypes showed highest resistance to water stress and high grain yield production for N30 in split and planting time application, respectively. Cereal4 and Rasad genotypes were suitable for N60 application in split and planting time application, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop water stress index (CWSI)
  • Water stress threshold
  • Soil and plant water balance
  • Nitrogen
  • Rainfed wheat genotypes
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