بررسی اثر کشت گیاه سورگوم در تغییر برخی شاخص های زیستی خاک در سطوح مختلف روی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

روی از جمله عناصر ضروری برای رشد گیاه است که غلظت زیاد آن موجب آلودگی و ایجاد سمیت در گیاه می شود. در این پژوهش اثرات کشت گیاه سورگوم بر برخی شاخص های فعالیت میکروبی و رابطه آن با افزایش غلظت روی در دو خاک با خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی نسبتا مشابه اما متفاوت در غلظت فلزات سنگین مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در هر دو خاک سه سطح روی mgkg-1250، 375و500 (بر اساس روی اولیه قابل استخراج با اسید نیتریک) اضافه شد. با استفاده از جعبه های پلاستیکی محتوی 8 کیلوگرم خاک محفظه های ریشه دان (Rhizobox) تهیه شد، که فضای داخل آن با استفاده از صفحات توری نایلونی به سه منطقه 1 S(منطقه ریزوسفری)، 2 S(مجاور به ریزوسفر) و 3 S(توده خاک) جداسازی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که در تمام سطوح روی و در هر دو نوع خاکBCF بزرگتر از 1 بوده است، سورگوم بر اساس این شاخص به عنوان گیاهی جهت بیش اندوزی روی محسوب می گردد. تنفس میکروبی و فعالیت دی هیدروژناز در خاک آلوده تر در تمامی مناطق جزءبندی شده مجاور ریشه کاهش یافت. در این رابطه اگرچه محیط ریشه (سوبسترا) و بازدارنده ها (فلزات سنگین) در تشکیل کمپلکس سوبسترا-آنزیم و بازدارنده-آنزیم رقابت می کنند، اما اثرگذاری ریشه در افزایش فعالیت میکروبی و آنزیمی در خاک 1 (غیرآلوده) بیشتر از خاک2 (آلوده) است. علت آن نیز احتمالا بهبود شرایط کشت گیاه سورگوم بر افزایش فعالیت های میکروبی آن در مجاورت ریشه حتی در شرایط تنش شدیدتر از نظر غلظت روی می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Effects of Sorghum Cultivation on Some Soil Biological Indicators at Different Zinc Levels

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Bagheri
  • H. Mirseyed Hosseini
University of Tehran
چکیده [English]

Zinc is an essential element for plant growth which its high concentrations can cause pollution and toxicity in plant. In this study, the effects of sorghum cultivation on some indicators of microbial activity and its association with increased zinc concentrations in two soils with relatively similar physical and chemical properties, but different in concentration of heavy metals were investigated. In both soils zinc levels were added to obtain 250, 375 and 500 mg kg-1 (based on the initial nitric acid extractable) content. Using plastic boxes containing 8 kg of soil, growth boxes (Rhizobox) were prepared. The box interior was divided into three sections S1 (the rhizosphere), S2 (adjacent to the rhizosphere) and S3 (bulk soil) using nylon net plates. The results showed that at all levels of zinc in both soil types, BCF were bigger than units, so using this indicator, sorghum can be considered as a plant for accumulation of zinc. Microbial respiration and dehydrogenase activity was reduced in all sections adjacent to root in the polluted soil. It is generally understood that substrates and inhibitors (heavy metals) compete in the formation of substrate-enzyme and inhibitor-enzyme complexes, but the effects of sorghum cultivation in increasing biological and enzyme activity indexes in soil 1 (non-polluted) was higher than soil 2 (polluted), perhaps due to improvements in microbial activity in the vicinity of the roots, even in concentration higher than stress condition levels for zinc in soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sorghum
  • Zinc
  • Rhizosphere
  • Rhizobox
  • Biological Indicators
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