تأثیر شدت چرای دام بر برخی خصوصیات شیمیایی خاک در مرتع گردنه زنبوری ارسنجان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسنده

پیام نور مرکز خرامه

چکیده

دام به عنوان یکی از عناصر اصلی در اکوسیستم‌های مرتعی همواره دارای اثرات متفاوتی بر قسمت‌های مختلف آن بوده است. یکی از این اثرات، تعداد دام مازاد بر ظرفیت مرتع می‌باشد که می تواند در شدت‌های مختلف بر خاک و گیاهان موجود در مرتع تأثیرات متفاوتی داشته باشد. به منظور بررسی اثر شدت چرای دام بر ویژگی‌های شیمیایی خاک در سه منطقه مرجع، کلید و بحرانی در مرتع گردنه زنبوری ارسنجان، نمونه‌گیری خاک به صورت تصادفی سیستماتیک و از دو افق 0 تا 15 و 15 تا 30 سانتی‌متری صورت پذیرفت. در هر افق تعداد 5 نمونه برداشت و فاکتورهای درصد نیتروژن کل، درصد فسفر و پتاسیم قابل جذب، درصد ماده آلی، اسیدیته و هدایت الکتریکی خاک در هر نمونه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج تجزیه واریانس دو طرفه و آزمون توکی نشان داد بین مناطق بحرانی و مرجع تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر درصد ازت کل، درصد ماده آلی و اسیدیته وجود ندارد. اما در منطقه کلید مقادیر Nو درصد ماده آلیکمتر از مناطق مرجع و بحرانی بوده درحالی‌که مقدار اسیدیته بیشتر از دو منطقه دیگر می‌باشد. همچنین با افزایش شدت چرا مقادیر P و K کاهش یافت اما هدایت الکتریکی افزایش پیدا کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Grazing Intensity on Some Soil Chemical Characteristics in Gardaneh Zanburi Rangeland of Arsanjan

نویسنده [English]

  • zeinab khademolhosseini
Payame Noor University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction:Changes caused by grazing on range ecosystem are generally assessed based on the soil conditions and vegetation. Livestock as one of the major elements in range land ecosystems has different effects on different parts of this ecosystem. One of these impacts is excessive livestock grazing capacity which can have different effects on soils and plants in various intensities.
Materials and Methods:Gardaneh ZanbooriRangelandis located in Arsanjan in Fars province. This isanareaof mountains, hillsandplains with the maximum height of 2280 meters and minimum height of 1640 meters above sea level. Related areas were separated under three different management methods of enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing. These three areas are considered as symbolic areas of grazing intensity including the reference area where no grazing intensity was observed, the key area where medium to heavy grazing was applied and critical area where heavy grazing was used. These areas were similar in all characteristics such as topography, soil type and rainfall and differed only in their grazing intensity factor. Then, soil samples were collected. Random systematic soil sampling was conducted at two horizons of 0 -15 and 15 -30 cm. Therefore, five profiles in each area (enclosure, moderate grazing and heavy grazing), a total of 15 soil profiles, were excavated and two samples were taken in each profile (one sample from each horizon). Finally, the thirty soil samples were transported to the laboratory. Samples were dried in the air laboratory and passed a two millimeter sieve after smashing. Factors such as N, P, K, OM, EC and PH were measured in each sample In the laboratory, the percentage of P was determined by the Olsen method while the percentage of K was determined using the flamephotometry method. Moreover, N was measured using the Kjeldhal method. C was measured by the Walkley and Black method. The percentage of OM was found by carbon multiplying percentage at 1.72 numbers. PH was determined with measuring the PH of saturated soil by PH meter machine. Measurement of soil EC was performed by the electrical conductivity meter. Data analysis was conducted by SPSS software. Comparing of mean values for each factor and between areas with different grazing intensity was done by the Tukey test.
Results and Discussion: Two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test showed no significant differences in term of N, OM and PH between critical and reference areas. But the amount of N and OM in the key area is lower than that of the reference and critical areas. While value of PH is higher than the other regions. Also values of P and K decreased within creasing grazing intensity but the EC factor increased.
Conclusion: Since vegetation removal and its exclusion from the ecosystem followed by considerable effect on the cycle of nutrient elements and their absorbability, it seems that in the studied ranges, the P and K elements decrease through the use and leaving of vegetation in the area. The results of N and OM showed that moderate grazing causes further decomposition of plant residues and organic nitrogen mineralization but there was no difference between the two treatments of heavy grazing and enclosure areas. In heavy grazing intensity, the amount of OM and N increases by several mechanisms. First, with soil bulk density and increased soil compaction, the oxygen supply and degradation rate decreases. In the second mechanism, intensive grazing changes the vegetation composition and root to shoot ratio. In the third mechanism, animal urine and feces can speed up the nitrogen cycle in grassland ecosystems. It seems that the simultaneous effect of the above factors studied in the related range causes no significant difference between heavy grazing and enclosure areas in the percentage of total nitrogen. EC is the lowest in the enclosure area. This is due to the absence of livestock and therefore no stepping on the soil and also more vegetation. The PH level of enclosure area is less than that of the moderate grazing area. This may be caused by more presence of organic matter in the soil of enclosure. When organic matter decomposes, organic acid and mineral acids are produced. Permanent production of acids in the soil in places where the root density is high causes dissolution of limestone and the soil is washed and so it reduces the PH.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arsanjan
  • GardanehZanburi
  • Grazing intensity
  • Soil chemical properties
1- Aghamohseny Fashamy M., Zahedi Amiri Gh., Farahpoor M., and Khorasani N.2008. Influence of Exclosure and Grazing on the Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Bulk Density case study in the central Alborzsouth slopes Rangelands. Journal of Iranian Agricultural Knowledge, 5(4):375-381. (in Persian).
2- Aghasi M.J., Bahmanyar M.A., and Akbarzadeh M., 2006. Comparison of the effects of exclusion and water spriding on vegetation and soil parameters in Kyasar rangelands,Mazandaran Province. Journal of Agriculture sciences and Natural Resources, 13(4):73-87.(in Persian with English abstract).
3- Azarnivand H., JunaidiJafariH., ZareChahookyM.A., JafariM., and NikoSH. 2009.The effect of Grazing on Carbon sequestration and Storage of Nitrogen in Ranges with Artemisia sieberi Species. Journal of Range Management, 3(4):590-609.(in Persian).
4- Bauer A., Cole C.V., and Black A.L. 1987. Soil Property Comparisons in Virgin Grasslands Between Grazed and Nongrazed Management Systems. Soil Science Society. Amer, 51:176-182.
5- BrennerJ.M. 1960. Determination of Nitrogen in Soil by kjeldahl Method. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 55(1):11-33.
6- Clari W.P. 1995. Vegetation and Soil Responses to Grazing Simulation on Riparian Meadows. Journal of Range Management, 48:18-25.
7- Dormaar J.F., Smoliak S., and Willms W.D. 1989. Distribution of Nitrogen Fractions in Grazed and Ungrazed Fescue Grassland Ah Horizon. Journal of Range Management, 43:6-9.
8- Dormaar J.F., Williams W., and Adoms W. 1994. Effect of Grazing and Abandoned Cultivation on a Stipa-Bouteloua Community. Journal of Range Management, 47(10).
9- Eskandari Z. 1995. The effect of irregular grazing on soil physical properties and Zagros summer ranges at Isfahan province.p.1-7.First National Seminar of Erosion and Sedimentation.Nour, Mazandaran, Iran.
10- Frank A.B., Tanaka. D.L., Hofmann L., and Follet R.F. 1995. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen of Northern Great Plains Grasslands as Influenced by Long- term Grazing. Journal of Range Management, 48:470-474.
11- Gao Y.H., Schuman M., Chen H., Wu N., and Luo P. 2009. Impacts of Grazing Intensity on Soil Carbon and Nitrogen in an Alpine Meadow on the Eastern Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Food Agriculture Environment, 7:749-754.
12- Gebremeskel K., and P.J. Pieterse. 2006. Soil status of a Semi – arid Rangeland in Ethiopia. Afr. J. Ecol, 45:72-79.
13- Golluscio R.A., Austin A.T., Garsia Martinez G. C., Gonzalez-polo M., Sala O.E., and Jackson R.B. 2009. Sheep Grazing Decreases Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Pools in the Patagonian Steppe: Combination of Direct and Indirect Effects. Ecosystems, 12:686-697.
14- GreatzR.D., and Tongway D.J. 1986. Influence of Grazing Management on Vegetation, Soil Structure and Nutrient Distribution and the Infiltration of Applied Rainfall in a Semi – arid Chenopod Shrubland. Aust. J. Eco, 11:347-360.
15- Gupta R.K., Bhumbla D.K., and Abrol I.P. 1984. Effect of Sodicity, PH, Organic Matter and Calcium Carbonate on the Dispersion Behavior of Soil. Soil Sci, 137:245-251.
16- HeydariyanAghakhaniM.,NaghipoorborjA.A., and TavakoliH.2010.The effects of Grazing Intensity on Vegetation and Soils in Sysab Rangelands,Bojnurd, Iran. Iranian Journal of Range and DesertResearch, 17(2):243-255.(in Persian with English abstract).
17- Hui D., and Jackson R.B. 2005. Geographic and Interannual Variability in Biomass Partitioning in Grassland Ecosystems: A Synthesis of Field data. New Phytologist, 169:85-93.
18- Jalilvand H., Tamartash R., and Heydarpour, H. 2006. Grazing Impact on vegetation and some soil chemical properties in Kojour Rangelands, noushahr, Iran. Journal of Range, 1(1):53-66.(in Persian with English abstract)
19- Javadi S.A.,JafariM.,AzarnivandH., andAlaviS.J. 2005.An investigation of the Grazing Intensity effects on variations of Soil Organic Matter and Nitrogen in Lar Rangelands. Journal of Natural Resources,58(3):711 -718.(in Persian with English abstract)
20- John D., and Wiliam Ph. 2000. Impact of Grazing Strategies on Soil Compaction. Tektran. United States Department of Agriculture, 4:7-13.
21- Johnston A., Dormaar J.F., and Smoliak S. 1971. Long – term Grazing Effects on Fescue Grassland Soils. Journal of Range Management, 24:185-188.
22- KashizenooziL., Saadat H., and NamdarM.2011. Investigating of vegetation distribution relationship with soil EC in arid and semi arid zones (case study: Marand watershed). Seventh National conference of Science and Watershed Engineering of Iran, Isfahan Technology University.
23- Khademolhosseini Z. 2004.An investigation of relationship between Plant Communities with Environmental Factors in range woodlands of Bonab sub Watershed Fars Province (Arsanjan), MSc Thesis, University of Mazandaran. 75pp.
24- Khademolhosseini Z. 2010. Comparison of Numerical plantSpecies DiversityIndices inthree Different Grazing Intensities (Case Study: GardanehZanboori - Arsanjan). Journal of Range Management 4(1):104- 112.(in Persian with English abstract)
25- Khademolhosseini, Z. 2014.Effect ofgrazingintensityonsoilchemical and physicalcharacteristics in GardanehZanburiranglandof Arsanjan.Research projectgrant ofFarsPayame Noor University.67 pp.
26- Kohandel A., Arzani H., and Hosseini Tavassol M. 2009. Effect of Grazing Intensity on N. P. K of soil. Iran-Watershed Management Science and Engineering, 3(6):59-65. (in Persian)
27- Kohandel A., Arzani H. and Hoseinitavasol M., 2011. Effect of Grazing Intensity on soil and vegetation characteristics using principle component Analysis. Iranian Journal of range and Desert Researches, 17(4):518-526. (in Persian with English abstract)
28- Leibig M.A., Gross J.R., Kronberg S.L.,Handson J.B., Frank A.B., and Philips R.L. 2006. Soil Response to Long – term Grazing in Northern Great Plains of North America. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 115:270-276.
29- Li w., Huang H.Z., Zhang Z.N., and Wu G.L. 2011. Effects of Grazing on the Soil Properties and C and N Storage in Relation to Allocation in an Alpine Meadow. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 11(4):27-39.
30- Liu N., Zhang Y., Chang SH., Kan H., and Lin L. 2012. Impact of Grazing on Soil Carbon and Microbial Biomass in Typical Steppe and Desert Steppe of Inner Mongolia. Plos One, 7(6):1-9.
31- McNaughton S.J., Banyikwa F.F., and McNaughton M.M. 1997. Promotion of the Cycling of Diet Enhancing Nutrients by African Grazers. Science, 278:1798-1800.
32- Menezes R.S-C., Elliot E.T., Valentine D.W., and Williams S.A. 2001. Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Elk Winter Ranges. Journal of Range Management, 54:400-408.
33- Mesdaghi M.1998. Grazing Range Management in Iran.AstanGhodsRazavi Press, Mashhad.
34- MirzaaliE., Mesdaghi M., and Erfanzadeh R. 2006. The study of effects ofexclusureon vegetation and soil surface in salinranges of Gomishan,Golestan province. Journal of Agriculture science and Natural Resources, 13(2):194-206.(in Persian with English abstract).
35- Mohammadi J., Reiisi F., and AsadiBrojeni E. 2001. Geostatistical analysis of long term exclosure and overgrazing on spatial structure of some of the soil properties. Proceedings of Second National Conference of Range and Range Management, IRAN.
36- MohammadiJ., andReiisiGahrooii F.2003. Fractal characterization of long-term exclosure and overgrazing on pattern of spatial variability of soil chemical properties. Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 7(4): 25-36.(in Persian).
37- Mousavi S.M. 2000. Study of grazing effect on vegetation process and soil changes in semi- steppe of Semnan Reza abad. Proceedings of the Iran range and range management national conference, Iran.
38- Nelson D.W., and Sommers L.E. 1982. Total Carbon, Organic Matter. In: A. L. page. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part II. 2nd ed., Agron. Monogar. ASA and SSSA. Madison, WI. 9:539-577.
39- Olsen S., Cole C., and Watanabe Dean.1954. Estimating of Available Phosphorus in Soils by Extraction with Sodium Bicarbonate. USDA. Circular Nr. 939, US Gov. print, office, Washington, DC.
40- Reeder J.D., Schuman G.E., Morgan J.A., and Lecain D.R. 2004. Response of Organic and Inorganic Carbon and Nitrogen to Long-term Grazing of the Shortgrass Steppe. Environmental Management, 33:458-495.
41- Robbins C.W. 1986. SodicCacareous Soil Reclamation as Affected By Different Amendments and Crops. Agronomy J, 78, 916-20.
42- Sanadgol A.B., Moghaddam M.A., JafariM. 2002. Effects ofShort-Term Grazing on some Soil Physical and Chemical characteristic in a Bromustomentelluspasture. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 55(4):581-596.(in Persian with English abstract).
43- Schuman G.E., Reeder J.D., Manley J.T., Hart R.H., and Manley W.A. 1999. Impact of Grazing Management on the Carbon and Nitrogen Balance of a Mixed Grass Rangeland. Ecological Applications, 19:65-71.
44- Sharif A.R., Biondini M.E., and Grygiel C.E. 1994. Effect of Grazing Intensity Effects on Litter Decomposition and Soil Nitrojen Mineralization. Journal of Range Management, 17(6):444-449.
45- SheidayKarkaj E., Akbarloo M. and NiknahadGhormakhar H., 2012. Effect of Livestock grazing management on improvingsoil properties inChaharbaghsummer rangelands of Golestan Province.Watershed Management Research (Pajouhesh&Sazandegi), 99:74-83. (in Persian with English abstract).
46- Singh R.S., Raghubanshi A.S., and Singh J.S. 1991. Nitrogen Mineralization in Dry Tropical Savana, Effects of Burning and Grazing: Soil Biol. Biochemistry, 23:269-273.
47- Stewart A., and Frank D. 2008. Short Sampling Intervals Reveal very Rapid Root Turnover in Temperate Grassland. Oecologia, 157:453-458.
48- Vermeire L.T.,Wester D.B., Mitchell R.B., and Fuhlen-dorf S.D. 2005. Fire and Grazing Effects on Wind Erosion, Soil Water Content and Soil Temperature. Journal of Environment Quality, 34:1559-1565.
49- Willms W.D., Smoliak S., and Dormaar J.F. 1990. Vegetation Response to Time Controlled Grazing on Mixed and Fescue Prairie. Journal of Range Management, 43:513-517.
50- Zarekia S., Jafari M., Arzani H., Javadi S.A., and Jafari A. A. 2012. Grazing Effects on some of the Physical and Chemical Properties of Soil. World Applied Sciences Journal, 20(2):205-212.
51- Zhong Y., Lin L.Y., Jian C., and Wen Z. 2005. Influences of Continuous Grazing and Livestock Exclusion on Soil Properties in a Degraded Sandy Grassland, Inner Mongolia, Northern China. Catena, 59(3):267-278.