آلودگی خاک، آب، گیاه و گردو غبار به روی، سرب و کادمیم در جنوب غربی اصفهان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهرکرد

چکیده

در اثرمعدن کاری بخش قابل توجهی از کانی‌های حاوی عنصرهای سنگین به صورت غبار در هوا پراکنده و آلودگی هایی را در هوا، آب و خاک-های اطرافایجاد می کنند. روان آب هم ممکن است با حرکت از کوه به طرف دشت، عناصر آلاینده را از معدن به خاک انتقال دهد. یکی از انواع آلودگی ها، آلودگی به فلزات سنگین می باشد.تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی تاثیر عناصر سنگین معدن بر میزان آلودگی خاک، آب، گیاه و غبار انجام شده است. معدن گوش فیل در 3کیلومتری جنوب غربی سپاهان شهر اصفهان قرار گرفته است. خاک رخ‌ها به فواصل500متر در امتداد سه ترانسکت موازی از ابتدای شهرک سپاهان شهرتا نزدیکی معدن گوش فیل حفر، مطالعه و نمونه برداری از تمام لایه های آن‌هاصورت گرفت. از معدن، آبچاه، گیاه و غبار نیز نمونه برداری انجام شد. غلظت کل سرب، روی و کادمیم در نمونه ها اندازه گیری گردید. برای منشایابی خاک و غبار آلوده، آنالیز ایزوتوپ های سرب انجام و روابط رگرسیونی بین نسبت های مقادیر این ایزوتوپ ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.در خاک های واقع شده در شهرک سپاهان شهر، آلودگی روی، سرب و کادمیم وجود ندارد. در 1 تا 2 کیلومتری معدن گوش فیل، خاک‌ها به سرب و روی آلوده اند. عنصرهای فوق الذکر از معدن توسط روان آببه خاک‌های منطقه مطالعاتی انتقال داده می شوند. انفجارها در معدن هم باعث ورود عنصرهای آلاینده به هوا و باد موجب انتقال آن‌ها به محیط اطراف می گردد. آب به سرب و کادمیم آلوده است. گیاهان فقط آلودگی کادمیم دارند. خطر آلودگی کادمیم در خاک‌های مورد مطالعه وجود ندارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Contamination of Soil, Water, Plant and Dust by Zinc, Lead and Cadmium in Southwest Isfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nastaran Esmaeilpourfard
  • J. Givi
  • A. Davodian
Shahrekord University
چکیده [English]

Introduction Due to mining, considerable amounts of heavy metal bearing mineralsare scattered in the atmosphere in the form of dust and make the surrounding air, water and soils polluted.Runoff water movingfrom the mountainstowardsplains may also transport heavy metals from mines to the soils.One type ofpollutions is contamination withheavy metals.The purpose of the present research has been to investigate the effect of heavy metals of mine on soil, water, plant and dust pollution.
Materials and Methods: Gushfil mine is located 3 kilometers southwest of Sepahanshahr, Isfahan. Soil profiles were dug 500 meters apart along three parallel transects, between east of Sepahanshahr and Gushfil mine. The profiles were described and samples were collected from their horizons. Ore, wells, plant and dust were sampled as well. Total concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium were measured in the samples. To find the origin of polluted dust and soil, lead isotopes contents in the samples were measured and regressional relationships between the ratios of these contents were investigated.
Results and Discussion Sepahanshahr soils are not contaminated by zinc, lead and cadmium, but within a distance of one to two kilometers from the Gushfil mine, the soils are polluted by zinc and lead. Cadmium contamination was not observed in the studied soils. In all of the soils, the heavy metals content varies downwards irregularly. The reason for this variation trend is that the studied soils are alluvial. In different periods of time, alluvium parent materials have been transported by runoff water from the lead and zinc mines towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The studied heavy metals have been distributed irregularly in different horizons of the soils that have been formed in these parent materials. Lead and cadmium concentrations of drinking water in the studied area are much higher than the maximum amount allowed by the World Health Organization. Cadmium content in all trees of the Sepahanshahr urban park and in alfalfa, lead content in olive trees and lead and cadmium concentrations in Holly hock (Althaea officinalis), Spurge (Euphorbiarigida) and Rhizome (Acanthe phylum bracteatum)are higher than dietaryallowance. Significant correlation between heavy metal concentrations reduction in dust samples and increase of distance from the mine expresses that contaminant heavy metals enter the atmosphere due to mine explosions. In dolomitic sandstone rich in sphalerite mineral, the total amounts of lead and zinc are maximum. The maximum amount of cadmium and too much lead and zinc were observed in a shale fragment, sampled from a location of a fault in the mine. Contents of the three metals were less in black and green shales, compared with the other samples. In dolomitic sandstone rich in gallon mineral, the amounts of the three metals are high and its lead content is maximum with respect to other rocks excluding dolomitic sandstone rich in sphalerite mineral. Significant correlation between ratios of lead isotopes contents of the rocks, soil and dust showed that the soils of the alluvial piedmont plain located at the footslope of the western mountains of the studied area have formed in alluvium parent materials originated from western mountains. The studied heavy metals have been transported together with these alluviums from the mine towards the alluvial piedmont plain. The other origin of these metals is the dust which is produced during the Gushfil mine explosions. This dust is translocated towards the Sepahanshahr and makes the surrounding environment of the mine polluted.
Conclusions: Origin of zinc, lead and cadmium in soil, water, plant and dust in the studied area is rocks of Gushfil mine. Transportation of these metals from the mine towards the environment can be explained by two mechanisms: 1) together with runoff water flowing from the western mountains towards the alluvial piedmont plain and 2) in the form of dust which originates from the mine and moves eastwards. The soils are not contaminated with cadmium. With increase of distance from the mine, contamination of lead and zinc decreases in soil and dust in such a way that in the Sepahanshahr soils, pollution of these metals is not observed. The soils located within a distance of 1 to 2 kilometers from the Gushfil mine are contaminated with lead and zinc. Water is polluted with lead and cadmium and the cadmium content of the plants is higher than dietaryallowance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cadmium
  • Lead
  • Mining
  • Pollution
  • Zinc
1- Ahmadi B., and Najmi Z. 2009. Investigation about management of mining wasted materials in Zanjan province. p. 101-114. In Iranian Environmental Engineering Society (ed.). Proceedings of the 3rd Conference of Environmental Engineering, 7-8 Oct. 2009. Tehran, Iran. (in Persian).
2- Alloway B.J. 1990. Heavy Metals in Soils. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
3- Asadi Z. 2004. Study of Geostatistical Correlation Among Concentrations of Some of Heavy Metals in Soil and Plant Around Zobeahan and Foolademobarakeh Factories. Soil Science M.Sc. thesis, Agricultural Faculty, Isfahan University of Technology. (in Persian with English abstract).
4- Boekhold A.E., and Vander Zee E.A. 1992. A scale sorption model validated at the column scale to predict Cd contents in a spatially variable field soil. Journal of Soil Science, 154: 105-109.
5- Boul S.W., Southard R.J., Graham R.C., and McDaniel P.A. 2003. Soil Genesis and Classification. 5th ed. Iowa State Press, Iowa.
6- Chapman H.D., and Pratt P.F. 1961. Methods of analysis for soils, plants and water. California University, California.
7- Correia P.R.M., Oliveirra E., and Oliveirra P.V. 2000. Simultaneous determination of Cd and Pb in food stuffs by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Analytical Chimica Acta, 405: 205-211.
8- Dayani M., Mohammadi J., and Naderi M. 2010. Geostatisticalanalysisof Pb, Zn and Cd concentrations in soils around Sepahanshahr, south Isfahan. Journal of Water and Soil. 23(4): 67-76. (in Persian with English abstract).
9- Farahmandkia Z., Mehrasebi M.R., Sekhawatjo M.S., Hasanalizadeh A.Sh., and Ramezanzadeh Z. 2010. Study of Heavy Metals in the Atmospheric Deposition in Zanjan, Iran.Health and Environment, 2: 240-249. (in Persian with English abstract).
10- Ghasemi A., Afshari S., and Taghipour B. 2004. Study of environmental impactsof Gushfil mine on Sepahanshahr, south Isfahan. p. 255-261. In Chadormalu Mining and Industrial Company (ed.). Proceedings of the 5th Iranian Congress on Safety, Health and Environment in Mines and Mineral Industries, 12 Dec. 2004. Kerman, Iran. (in Persian).
11- Ghasemi Todeshkchooi A. 1996. Study ofgeology, facies analysisandgeochemistry ofKolahdarvazeh-Gudzandan-Khanehgorgi lead and zincmineinsouthernIrankuh, southwestIsfahan. M.Sc. thesis, Faculty of Sciences, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran. (in Persian with English abstract).
12- Ghazban F., Mcnutt R.H., and Schwarcz H.P. 1994. Genesis of sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ba deposits in the Irankuh district, Isfahan area, west-centralIran. Journal of Economic Geology,89: 1262-1278.
13- Hojati S., Khademi H., Cano A.F., and Landi A. 2012. Characteristics of dust deposited along a transect between central Iran and the Zagros mountains. Catena, 88: 27-36.
14- Hutzinger O. 1980. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer, New York.
15- Kabata-pendias A., and Mukherjee A.B. 2007. Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, Berlin.
16- Kabata-pendias A., and Pendias H.K. 2000. Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. 3rd ed., CRC Press, United States.
17- Khorasanipour M., Aftabi A., Esmaeilzadeh A., and Nekouei M. 2007. Geochemical Investigation and Environmental Analysis of Toxic Metals in Soil Horizons, Residential Town of Sarcheshmeh Cu Mine, Kerman. p. 2042-2052. In Geological Society of Iran (ed.). Proceedings of the 10th Symposium of Geological Society of Iran, 4-6 Sep. 2006. Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian).
18- Kribek B., Majer V., Veselovský F., and Nyambe I. 2010. Discrimination of lithogenic and anthropogenic sources of metals and sulphur in soils of the central-northern part of the Zambian copperbelt mining district: A topsoil vs. subsurface soil concept. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 104: 69–86.
19- Meteorogical Organization of Iran 2011. Isfahan Meteorogical Bureau. Available at http://www. Esfahanmet. ir. /index.aspx?lang=2&sub=0
20- Ping S.X., Shu T., Jun C., Gang L.B., Ran S.W., and Ju Z.W. 1999. Vertical distribution of trace element contents in soils of Tianjin area. Journal of China Environmental Science, 19(3): 226-229.
21- Pfeifer H.R., Derron M.H., Rey D., Schlegel C., Atteia O., Piazza R.D., Dubois J.P., and Mandia Y. 2000. Chapter 2 natural trace element input to the soil- sediment-water-plant system: examples of background and contaminated situations in Switzerland, eastern France and northern Italy. Trace Metals in the Environment, 4: 33-86.
22- Rahmani B., Peyrovan H., and Abbasnezhad A. 2009. Study of environmental effects of Geirud phosphate mine, Tehran on accumulation of heavy metals in soil. In Geological Society of Iran (ed.). Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Geological Engineering and Environment of Iran. 4-6 Sep. 2009. Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran. (in Persian).
23- Rashed M.N. 2010. Monitoring of contaminated toxic and heavy metals, from mine tailings through age accumulation, in soil and some wild plants at southeast Egypt. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 178 (1-3): 739–746.
24- Safari M. 2006. Investigation about impacts of mine working on environmental pollution and diseases of miners. In Tehran University (ed.). Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Environmental Engineering. 19-20 Feb. 2006. Tehran University, Tehran. (in Persian).
25- Sauerbeck D.R., and Hein A. 1991. Nickel uptake from different soils and its prediction by chemical extractions. Journal of Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 58:861-871.
26- Sencindiver J.C., and Ammons J.T. 2000. Minesoil genesis and classification. p. 595-613. In R.I. Barnhisel, R.G. Darmody, and W.L. Daniels (eds.). Reclamation of drastically disturbed lands. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, Wisconsin.
27- Sposito G., Lund L.J., and Chang A.C. 1982. Trace metal chemistry in arid zone field soils, amended by sewage sludge: I. fractionation of Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in solid phases. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 46: 260-264.
28- TaghipourM., Khademi H., and Ayoubi Sh. 2010. Spatial variability of Pb and Zn concentrations and its relationship with land use and parent materials in selected surface soils in part of Hamadan province. Water and Soil (Agricultural Sciences and industries), 24 (1): 132-144.(in Persian with English abstract).
29- Tan K.H. 1994. Environmental Soil Science. Morcel Dekker Inc., New York
30- Tijani M.N., Okunlola O.A., and Abimbola A.F. 2006. Lithogenic concentrations of trace metals in soils and saprolites over crystalline basement rocks: A case study from SW Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 46: 427– 438.
31- Valizadeh M., Ghasemi H., Naraghi N., and Sadeghiyan M. 2007. Principles of Isotopic Geology. 2nd ed. Shahrood University of Technology. (in Persian).
32- Wei B., Jiang F., Li X., and Mu S. 2009. Spatial distribution and contamination assessment of heavy metals in urban road dusts from Urumqi, NW China. Microchemical Journal, 93: 147-152.
33- World Health Organization 1998. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO, Geneva.
34- Xiaohai L., Yuntao G., Khan S., Gang D., Aikui C., Li L., Lei Z., Zhonghan L., and Xuecan W. 2008. Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on contaminated sites and their potential accumulation capacity in Heqing, Yunnan. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20: 1469–1474.
35- Zarasvandi A.R., Rezaei M., Pourkaseb H., and Saki A. 2013. Investigation about primary and secondary processes in Nasirabad manganese mine, south of Neyriz, using mineralogy and geochemistry of Pb isotopes. Economic Geology, 1(5):37-47. (in Persian).
36- Zhang X.P., Deng W., and Yang X.M. 2002. The background concentrations of 13 soil trace elements and their relationships to parent materials and vegetation in Xizang (Tibet), China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 21: 167-174.