تغییرات غلظت Ni، Cr و Mn در خاک‌های تشکیل‌شده در طول یک ردیف پستی و بلندی از سنگ‌های فوق‌بازی در غرب مشهد

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

سنگ‌های فوق‌بازی به‌عنوان منابع بالقوه طبیعی عناصر سنگین به‌ویژه Ni و Cr در ورود خاک‌ شناخته شده‌اند. هدف از این مطالعه بررسی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی و تغییرات غلظت عناصر Ni و Cr خاک‌های تشکیل شده در امتداد یک ردیف پستی و بلندی از سنگ‌های فوق‌بازی در غرب شهر مشهد بود. بدین منظور از افق‌های سه خاکرخ در موقعیت‌های قله ‌شیب، شیب ‌پشتی و پای‌ شیب نمونه‌برداری شد. عناصر Ni، Cr و Mn ، اکسیدهای آهن آزاد (Fed) و اکسیدهای آهن بی‌شکل (Feo) به‌ترتیب توسط تیزاب سلطانی توسط، سیترات-بیکربنات-دی‌تیونات و اسید اگزالیک عصاره‌گیری و توسط دستگاه جذب اتمی اندازه‌گیری شد. مورفولوژی افق‌ها نشان‌دهنده عدم تکامل و هوادیدگی خاک‌های مورد مطالعه بود. مقدار Ni از 6/52 تا 5/312 و Cr از 2/35 تا 3/135 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم متغیر بود که نسبت به خاک‌های مناطق مرطوب کمتر است که می‌تواند به‌دلیل هوادیدگی کم خاک، اضافه شدن مواد بادرفتی شامل گچ و کربنات‌ها و کم بودن مقدار این عناصر در مواد مادری باشد. مقدار Ni و Cr از قله شیب به سمت پای شیب افزایش داشت. تغییرات هماهنگ Ni با Cr و Mn با Fed در خاک‌های مورد مطالعه نشان‌دهنده مشابهت این عناصر از نظر کانی‌شناسی و روند هوادیدگی بود. با توجه به مقدار زیاد نیکل و کروم در خاک‌های مورد مطالعه، لازم است که قابلیت جذب زیستی این عناصر مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Variations of Ni, Cr and Mn Concentration in Soils Formed Along a Toposequence of Ultrabasic Rocks in Western Mashhad

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Akbari
  • Alireza Karimi
  • A. Lakzian
  • A. Fotovat
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Parent materials as one of the main soil formation factors have a great impact on the concentration of heavy metals in the soil. Heavy metals are released to the soil during weathering and pedogenic processes. Ultrabasic rocks are known as the potential natural source of heavy metals, especially Ni, Cr and Mn in the soil. Average concentrations of Ni and Cr in the soils are 84 and 34 mg kg-1, respectively; while, in soil derived from ultrabasic parent material, the concentration of these elements may reach up to 100000 mg kg-1. Binaloud zone in northeastern composed of different geological materials. There is a narrow band of ophiolitic rocks in this zone that located along Mashhad city. The geochemical behavior of ultrabsic rocks and the associated soil have been frequently studied mostly in humid regions. But, there are a few research works done in arid environments. The objective of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical properties and concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn in soils formed along a toposequence of ultrabasic rocks in western Mashhad.
Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the hilly land landscape of Binaloud zone in the Western part of Mashhad. Mean annual precipitation and temperature is 260 mm and 13.7 oC, respectively. Soil temperature and moisture regimes are thermic and aridic boarder on mesic, respectively. Studied soils developed on hornblendite rocks that are ultrabasic rocks with SiO2 less than 45% and contain ferromagnesian minerals. A toposequence was selected and, three soil profiles on shoulder, backslope and footslope geomorphic positions were described acoording to key to soil taxonmy 2014 and the soil horizons were sampled. Air-dried samples were passed through 2 mm sieve and were used for laboratory analysis. Pseudo-total concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn were extracted by aqua regia digestion procedure. Free iron oxides (Fed) and amorphous iron oxides (Feo) were extracted by citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite (CBD) and oxalic acid methods, respectively and were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The soil was extracted by ammonium acetar 1N and concentration of Ca and Mg were measured by EDTA titrimetric method. Calcium carbonate equivalent, gypsum, pH, Sand, silt and clay fractions and soil organic materials were measured using custom laboratory methods.
Results and Discussion: Solum thickness of the studied soils is less than 45 cm. Calcification and gypsification are the two main soil formation processes leading to formation of calcic (Bk) and gypsic (By) horizons. Calcium carbonate equivalent and gypsum contents in the studied soils varied from 5.1 to 30 and 5.9 to 40.1 %, respectively. Regarding the type of parent material, presence of large amounts of gypsum and carbonates can be attributed to aeolian addition to the soil system. The presence of discontinuous and thin loess deposits in the study area confirms the dustfall deposition. High amount of these minerals cause Ca/Mg ratio is up to 33.3. Concentration of Fed and Feo were less than 6.8 and 0.2 g kg-1 reflecting weak wethering state of the soils. Morphological characteristics are the indications of weak soil development and weathering. Concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn varied from 52.6 to 312.5, 35.2 to 135.3 and 375.3 to 628.9 mg kg-1 that are low values in comparison to soils in humid regions due to weak soil weathering and eolian addition of materials containing gypsum and carbonates. The Ni and Cr contents increase from shoulder to foot slope. Direct and concordant variations of Ni with Cr and Mn with Fed indicate the similar mineralogy and trend of weathering of these elements. Regarding the high concentration of Ni and Cr in the studied soils, the bioaccessibility of these elements should be investigated.
Conclusion: Results of this study indicated the weak development of soil formed on ultabasic rocks in the western Mashhad that was expected regarding the arid climate of the study area. Because of the low weathering status of the soil, the concentration of Ni, Cr and Mn were less than that of similar soils in humid areas. Also aeolian addition of carbonates and gypsum to the soil system dilutes the concentration of these elements. To evaluate risk assessment of Ni, Cr and Mn in the studied soils, successive extraction and pot experiments are suggested.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chromium
  • Nickel
  • Slope positions
  • Toposequence
  • Ultrabasic
Acosta J., Martinez-Martinez S., Faz A., and Arocena J. 2011. Accumulations of major and trace elements in particle size fractions of soils on eight different parent materials. Geoderma, 161: 30-42.
2-Afshar Harb A., Aghanabati A., Majidi B., Alavai Tehrni A., Shahrabi M., Davoudzadeh M., and Navai I. 1986. Geological Quadrangle Map of Mashhad (scale 1 :250 000) . Ministry of Mine and Metals, Geological Survey of Iran.
3- Alavi, M. 1991. Sedimentary and structural characteristics of the Paleo-Tethys remnants in northeastern Iran. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 103: 983-992.
4- Alexander E. 2004. Serpentine soil redness, differences among peridotite and serpentinite materials, Klamath Mountains, California. International Geology Review, 46: 754-764.
5- Alexander E. 2010. Old Neogene summer-dry soils with ultramafic parent materials. Geoderma, 159: 2-8.
6- Alexander E., and DuShey J. 2011. Topographic and soil differences from peridotite to serpentinite. Geomorphology, 135: 271-276.
7- Alexander E. 2014. Arid to humid serpentine soils, mineralogy, and vegetation across the Klamath Mountains, USA. Catena, 116: 114-122.
8- Alves S., Trancoso M., Gonçalves M., and Santos M. 2011. A nickel availability study in serpentinised areas of Portugal. Geoderma, 164: 155-163.
9- Artieda O., Herrero J., and Drohan P. 2006. Refinement of the Differential Water Loss Method for Gypsum Determination in Soils. Published by Soil science Society of America Journal, 1932-1935.
10- Becquer T., Quantin S., Rotte-Capet C., Ghanbaja J., Mustin C., and Herbillon A. 2006. Sources of trace metals in Ferralsols in New Caledonia. European Journal of Soil Science, 57: 200-213.
11- Bera R., Seal A., Banerjee M., and Dolui A. 2005. Nature and profile distribution of iron and aluminum in relation to pedogenic processes in some soils developed under tropical environment in India. Environmental Geology, 47: 241-245.
12- Bucher K., and Grapes R. 2011. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks. Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht London New York.
13- Burt R. 2004. Soil Survey Laboratory Method Manual. Soil Survey Investigations Report, No. 42.Version 4.0, USDA-NRCS, Lincoln, Nebraska.
14- Caillaud J., Proust D., Philippe S., Fontaine C., and Fialin M. 2009. Trace metals distribution from a serpentinite weathering at the scales of the weathering profile and its related weathering microsystems and clay minerals. Geoderma, 149: 199-208.
15- Cheng C., Shih-Hao J., Yoshiyuki L., Heng T., Ying-Hsiou C., and Zeng-Yei H. 2011. Pedogenic chromium and nickel partitioning in serpentine soils along a toposequence. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75: 659-668.
16- Chardot V., Echevarria G., Gury M., Massoura S., and Morel J.L. 2007. Nickel bioavailability in an ultramafic toposequence in the Vosges Mountains (France). Plant and Soil, 293: 7–21.
17- Cornell R. and Shwertmann U. 2003. The Iron Oxides: Structure, Properties, Reactions, Occurrence and Uses. 2nd ed.VCH, Weinheim, Germany.
18- Day P. 1965. Particle fractionation and particle-size Analysis. In: Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1; edition, Black, C.A. American Society of Agronomy: Madison, WI., Pp: 545-567.
19- Dzemua G., Mees F., Stoops G., and Ranst E. 2011. Micromorphology, mineralogy and geochemistry of lateritic weathering over serpentinite in south-east Cameroon. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 60: 38-48.
20- Eze p., Udeigwe T., and Stietiya M. 2010. Distribution and potential source evaluation of heavy metals in prominent soils of Accra Plains, Ghana. Geoderma, 156: 357-362.
21- Garnier J., Quantin C., Guimarães E., Garg V.K., Martins E.S., and Becquer T. 2009. Understanding the genesis of ultramafic soils and catena dynamicsinNiquelândia, Brazil. Geoderma, 151: 204-214.
22- Gasser U., Juchler S., Hobson W., and Sticher H. 1994.The fate of chromium and nickel in subalpine soils derived from serpentinite. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 75: 187-195.
23- Ghaderian S., Mohtadi A., Rahiminejad M., and Baker A. 2007. Nickel and other metal uptake and accumulation by species of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) from the ultramafics of Iran. Environmental Pollution, 145: 293-298.
24- Gough, L., Meadows, G., Jackson, L. and Dudka, S. 1989. Biogeochemistry of a Highly Sepentinized, Chromite Rich Ultramafic Area. Tehama County, California. U.S. Geol. Soc. Bull. No. 1901. U.S. Dep. of Interior, Washington DC.
25- Hasani Nekou A., Karimi A., Haghnia G.H., and Mahmoudy Gharaie M.H. 2014. Effect of parent materials and pedogenic processes on the distribution of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni in the residual soils of Binaloud zone, western Mashhad. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 18: 123-134.
26- Hasani Nekou A., Karimi A., Haghnia G.H., and Mahmoudy Gharaie M.H. 2014. Investigating the concepts of residual soils based on evolution of soils derived from different parent materials in Binaloud zone, Mashhad. Journal of Water and Soil, 26:460-470.
27- Hu X., Xu L., Pan Y., and Shen M. 2009. Influence of the aging of Fe oxides on the decline of magnetic susceptibility of the Tertiary red clay in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Quaternary International, 209: 22-30.
28- Huggett J. H. 2007. Fundamentals of Geomorphology. Second Edition, Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge.
29- ISO/CD 11466. 1995. Soil Quality-Extracti on of Trace Metals Soluble in Aqua-Regia. The International Organization for Standardization.
30- Jelenska M., Hasso-Agopsowicz A., Kadzialko-Hofmokl M., Sukhorada A., Bondar K., and Matviishina Z. 2008. Magnetic iron oxides occurring in chernozem soil from UKRAINE and POLAND as indicators of pedogenic processes. Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, 52: 255-270.
31- Karimi A., Khademi H., Kehl M., and Jalalian A. 2009. Distribution, lithology and provenance of peridesert loess deposits in northeastern Iran. Geoderma, 148: 241-250.
32- Karimpour M.H., Farmer L., Ashouri C., and Saadat. S. 2006. Major, trace and REE geochemistry of paleo-tethys collision-related granitoids from Mashhad, Iran. Journal of Sciences, 17: 127-145.
33- Lessovaia S., and Polekhovsky Y. 2009. Mineralogical composition of shallow soils on basic and ultrabasic rocks of East Fennoscandia and of the Ural Mountains, Russia. Clays and Clay Minerals, 4: 476–485.
34- Lessovaia S., Dultz S., Polekhovsky Y., Krupskaya V., Vigasina M., and Melchakova L. 2012. Rock control of pedogenic clay mineral formation in a shallow soil from serpentinous dunite in the Polar Urals, Russia. Applied Clay Science, 64: 4-11.
35- Mahmoodi Meymand S., Esfandiari M., and Zarin Kafsh M. Study effects of Naein-Baft fault serpentinite (Shahrbabak Region) on some physico-chemical properties of affected soil and water. Journal of Agricultural Science, 12: 767-777.
36- McGrath S.P. 1995. Chromium and Nickel. In: B.J. Alloway (ed.) Heavy Metals in Soils. 2nd. Blackie Academic and Professional, London. P. 152–178.
37- McKeague J., and Day J. 1966. Dithionite and oxalate-extractable Fe and Al as aids in differentiating various classes of soils. Can. Journal of Soil Science, 46: 13-22.
38- Mehra O., and Jackson M. 1960. Iron oxides removed from soils and clays by a dithionite-citrate system buff ered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays Clay Miner, 7: 317–327.
39- Nael M., Khademi H., Jalalian A., Schulin R., Kalbasi M., and Sotohian F. 2009. Effect of geo-pedological conditions on the distribution and chemical speciation of selected trace elements in forest soils of western Alborz, Iran. Geoderma, 152: 157-170.
40- Oze C., Fendorf S., Bird D., and Coleman R.G. 2004a. Chromium geochemistry of serpentine soils. International Geology Review, 46: 97–126.
41- Oze C., Fendorf S., Bird D., and Coleman R. 2004b. Chromium geochemistry in serpentinizedultramafi c rocks and serpentine soils from the Franciscan complex of California. American Journal of Science, 304:67–101.
42- Quantin C., Ettler V., Garnier J., and Sebek O. 2008. Sources and extractability of chromium and nickel in soil profiles developed on Czech serpentinites. Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 340:872–882.
43- Page A., Miller R., and Keeney D. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties, second ed. Agronomy Monographs, 9. ASASSA, Madison.
44- Rajapaksha A., Vithanage M., and Oze C. 2012. Nickel and manganese release in serpentine soil from the Ussangoda Ultramafic Complex, Sri Lanka. Geoderma, 190: 1-9.
45- Raous S., Echevarria G.,Sterckeman T., Hanna K.,Thomas F., Martins E.S., and Becquer T. 2013. Potentially toxic metals in ultramafic mining materials: identification of the mainbearing and reactive phases. Geoderma, 192: 111–119.
46- Sahebjam A.A. 2002. Final report of detailed soil survey of Torogh agricultural research site, Khorasan Razavi provience. Technical Report No. 1146, Soil and Water Research Institute. (in Persian).
47- Schwertmann U., and Taylor R. 1989. Iron Oxides.p.380-427.In Dixon,B.J. and Weed,S.B(ed.).Mineral in Soil Environments. Part8. 2nd ed. No1. SSSA, Madison,WI.
48- Soil Survey Staff. 2010. Keys to Soil Taxonomy. 11th edition, USDA-NRCS, Washington DC.
49- Unver I., Madenoglu S., Dilsiz A., and Namli A. 2013. Influence of rainfall and temperature on DTPA extractable nickel content of serpentine soils in Turkey. Geoderma, 202/203: 203-211.
50- Vergouwen L. 1981. Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist, 66:632-636.
51- Walkley A., and Black I.A. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 37:29-38.
52- Zielhofer C., Espejo J.M.R., Granados M.A.N., Faust D. 2009. Durations of soil formation and soil development indices in a Holocene Mediterranean floodplain. Quaternary International, 209: 44-65.