اثر کیفیت آب و مدیریت کاربرد آب شور در سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای بر عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب در خربزه دیررس

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

2 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

برای بررسی اثر سطوح شوری آب آبیاری و زمان شروع آبیاری با آب شور و لب‌شور بر خصوصیات کمی خربزه دیررس، آزمایشی با 7 تیمار و 3 تکرار در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با استفاده از روش آبیاری قطره‌ای نواری، در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی انجام شد. تیمارهای آبیاری عبارت بودند از: 1- آبیاری با آب شیرین (6/0 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر) از ابتدای کاشت تا انتهای فصل برداشت، 2- آبیاری با آب با شوری 3 دسی‌زیمنس برمتر از ابتدا تا انتهای فصل داشت، 3-آبیاری با آب با شوری 6 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر از ابتدا تا انتهای فصل، 4- آبیاری با آب با شوری 6 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر از 20 روز بعد از جوانه‌زنی تا انتها، 5- آبیاری با آب با شوری 3 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر از 20 روز بعد از جوانه‌زنی تا انتها، 6- آبیاری با آب با شوری 6 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر از 40 روز بعد از جوانه‌زنی تا انتها و 7- آبیاری با آب با شوری 3 دسی زیمنس بر متر از 40 روز بعد از جوانه‌زنی تا انتهای فصل داشت. نتایج نشان داد که، شوری آب بر عملکرد کل، عملکرد اقتصادی و کارآیی مصرف آب آبیاری تاثیر معنی‌داری داشت. بالاترین عملکرد کل و عملکرد اقتصادی و کارآیی مصرف آب آبیاری از تیمار شاهد بدست آمد که تفاوت آن‌ها با تیمارهای آب شور و لب‌شور معنی‌دار بود. در ضمن تفاوت بین عملکردهای تیمارهای شور و لب‌شور معنی‌دار نبودند. آبیاری با آب شیرین در اوایل دوره رشد باعث افزایش محصول نشده بلکه، باعث وارد شدن تنش بیشتر به گیاه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Water Quality and Drip Irrigation Management on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Late Summer Melon

نویسندگان [English]

  • javad baghani 1
  • A. Alizadeh 2
  • H. Ansari 2
  • M. Azizi 1
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Production and growth of plants in many parts of the world due to degradation and water scarcity have been limited and particularly, in recent decades, agriculture is faced with stress. In the most parts of Iran, especially in the Khorasan Razavi province, drought is a fact and water is very important. Due to melon cultivation in this province, and the conditions of quality and quantity of water resources and water used to produce the melon product in this province, any research done on the use of saline and brackish waters is statistically significant.
Materials and Methods: To study the effects of different water salinity and water management on some of the agronomic traits of late summer melon with drip irrigation, an experiment with 7 treatments and 3 repetitions was conducted in a randomized complete block design, in Torogh station, Mashhad. The irrigation treatments were: 1- fresh water from planting to harvesting, 2- water (3 dS/m) from planting to harvesting, 3- water (6 dS/m) from planting to harvesting, 4- water (6 dS/m) from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 5-water (6 dS/m) from 40 days after plantation to harvesting, 6-water (3 dS/m) from 20 days after plantation to harvesting, 7-water (6 dS/m) from 40 days after plantation to harvesting.
Row spacing and plant spacing were 3 m and 60 cm, respectively and the pipe type had 6 liters per hour per unit of meters in the drip irrigation system.
Finally, the amount of salinity water, number of male and female flowers, number of seed germination, dry leaves' weight, leaf area, chlorophyll (with SPAD) etc. were measured and all data were analyzed by using MSTAT-C software and all averages of data, were compared by using the Duncan test.
Results and Discussion The results of analysis of data showed the following:
Number of seeds germination: Salinity in water irrigation had no significant effects on the number of seed germination. However, there was the most number of seed germinations in the fresh water treatments. However, with increased water salinity, the time of seed germination reduced. The maximum delay in germination of seeds was in the treatment that was irrigated with fresh water from the beginning of cultivation.
Number of flowers: First, the male flowers appeared and after 5 to 7 days, the appearance of female flowers began. The effect of irrigation treatments on female flower appearance was significant. With increased water salinity, the number of male flowers decreased. There was the lowest male flower in the treatment that was irrigated with saline water from the beginning, but there was no significant difference among the other treatments.
Root, steam and leaves: The effect of saline irrigation water on dried leaves’ weight and dry root weight was significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. Fresh treatment and salinity treatment have the least and the most root dries weight, respectively (irrigated from the beginning with fresh or saline water). Two treatments that were irrigated with fresh and brackish water from thebeginning of cultivation have the highest leaf growth. The same trend was true for steams.
In general, in all treatments, after applying different quality water to the end of the growing season, the trend of plant growth was similar to the others.
Chlorophyll: One of the most common measurements made by plant scientists is the determination of Chlorophyll concentration. The SPAD index was used for comparison of chlorophylls. With an increase of the salt in irrigation water, the SPAD index was also increased.
The maximum and minimum SPAD was in the treatments that were irrigated with saline water (treatment A) and fresh water (treatment C) from the beginning of cultivation, respectively.
Yield: With increasing the salinity of water, the total yield decreased. Salinity in irrigation water had a significant effect (at the 5% level) on total yield. The mean yield of brackish and salinity irrigation water treatments were 17.5% and 26% less than the fresh water irrigation treatment, respectively.These differences were significant. However, there was no significant difference between the yield of cases using brackish or salt water.
Conclusion: The results showed the following:
Salinity in irrigation water had no significant effect on the number of seed germinations. However, there was the most number of seed germinations in the fresh water treatments, but by raising the salinity of water, the time of seed germination was reduced.
With increasing the salinity of water, the number of male flowers decreased. There was the lowest male flower in the treatment that were irrigated with salt water from the beginning, but there was no significant difference between the other treatments.
The effect of salinity water on leaf dry weight and dry root was significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. Fresh and salinity treatments have the least and the most root dry weight, respectively (irrigated from the beginning with fresh or salt water). Two treatments that were irrigated with fresh and brackish water from the beginning of cultivation have the highest leaf growth.
The same trend was true for steams.
Two treatments that were irrigated with fresh and brackish water from the beginning of cultivation have the highest leaves areas. And they had significant difference with other irrigation treatments.
With an increase in the salt in irrigation water, the SPAD index also increased.
The mean yield of brackish and salinity water irrigation treatments were 17.5% and 26% less than that of fresh water irrigation treatment, respectively.These differences were significant. But there was no significant difference between the yield of brackish and salt water.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Brackish water
  • economic
  • Germination
1- Alizadeh A. 2011. Ettelaat Newspaper. No. 25247, Bahman, Monday 24th. )in Persian(
2- Anonymous. 2010. Statistical Yearbook of agriculture. Department of Statistics and Information Department of Planning and Economic Affairs, Agriculture Organization of Khorasan Razavi. )in Persian(
3- Ayers R.S. and Westcot D.W. 1994. Water quality for agriculture, FAO 29.
4- Blaylok A.D. 1994. Soil salinity, Salt tolerance and growth potential of horticultural and landscape plants, Department of plant, Soil and Sciences College of Agriculture, University of Wyoming.
5- Botia P., Navarro J.M., Cerda A. and Martinez V. 2005. Yield and fruit quality of two melon cultivars irrigated with saline water at different stages of development, European Journal of Agronomy, 23:243-253.
6- Bustan A., Cohen S., De Malach Y., Zimmermann P., Golan R., Sagi M. and Pasternak D. 2005. Effects of timing and duration of brackish irrigation water on fruit yield and quality of late summer melons, Agricultural Water Management, 74 (2005) 123–134
7- Dasgan H.Y. and Koc S. 2009. Evaluation of salt tolerance in common bean genotypes by ion regulation and searching for screening parameters, Journal of Food Agriculture Environment, 7(2):363-372.
8- Dasgan H.Y., Kusvuran S., Aydoner G., Akyol M., Bol A. and Abak A. 2012. Screening for salinity and drought tolerance in melons, Proceedings of the Xth EUCARPIA Meeting on Genetics and Breeding of Cucurbitaceae, Antalya, Turkey, 15-18 October, 2012 pp. 497-502
9- Ehsani M. and Khalid E. 2003. Water productivity in agriculture, National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage, Publisher Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage. 109 pages. )in Persian(
10- Evans L. 2006. Salinity tolerance in irrigated crops. http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/agriculture/resources/soils/salinity/crops/tolerance-irrigated
11- Faizi M., Farkhonde A., Mustafazadeh B. and Mousavi F. 2010. Effect of irrigation water quality on yield and some yield components of cantaloupe with drip irrigation method, Water in agricultural research, Volume 24, No. 2/1389. (in Persian with English abstract)
12- FAO 61. Agricultural drainage water management in arid and semi-arid areas, Annex 1, Crop salt tolerance data. 135-151.
13- FAO. 2003. Statistical databases.
14- Hosseini S.M. (2009). Broadcasting water in the province. Publication No. 12. Khorasan Regional Water Company.
15- http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor
16- Kusvuran S., Ellialtıoglu S., Abak A. and Yasar F. 2007b. Effects of salt stress on ion accumulation and activity of same antioxidant enzymes in melon (Cucumis melo L.) Journal of Food Agriculture Environment 5(2):351-354.
17- Kusvuran S., Yasar F., Ellialtıoglu S., and Abak A. 2007c. Utilizing some of screening methods in order to determine of tolerance of salt stress in the melon (Cucumis melo L.). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 3(1):40-45.
18- Mangal J.L., Hooda P.S. and Lal S. 1988. Salt tolerance of five muskmelon cultivars, The Journal of Agricultural Science. 110: 641-643.
19- Mendlinger S. 1994. Effect of increasing plant density and salinity on yield and fruit quality in muskmelon, Scientia Horticulture, 57. 41-49
20- Mohammadzadeh R. 2011. The effect of water salinity and quantity of commercial melon genotypes, Proceedings of the National Conference of melon production. )in Persian(
21- Nazari A., Mahdavi Mighan A. and Ebrahimi A. 2011. Correlation between soil salinity and dissolved solids content and taste two varieties of melons grown in the region Biarjomand, Shahrood, Proceedings of the National Conference of melon production. )in Persian(
22- Tedeschi A., Lavini A., Riccardi M., Pulvento C. and d’Andria R. 2011. Melon crops (Cucumis melo L., cv. Tendral) grown in a Mediterranean environment under saline-sodic conditions: Part I. Yield and quality. Agricultural Water Management, Volume 98, Issue 9, July 2011, Pages 1329-1338.
23- Yeo A.R., Lee K.S., Izard P., Boursier P.J. and Flowers T.J. 1991. Short and Long Terms Effects of Salinity on Leaf Growth in Rice (Oryze sativa L.). J. Exp. Bot., 42: 881-889
24- Zkan Sivritepe H.O., Nuray S., Atilla E. and Turhan E. 2005. The effects of NaCl pre-treatments on salt tolerance of melons grown under long-term salinity. Scientia Horticulture 106: 568–581