ارتباط بین ویژگی‌های مغناطیسی و برخی خصوصیات خاک در رژیم‌های مختلف رطوبتی در استان گلستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی اصفهان

2 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

چکیده

از بین عوامل خاک‌سازی، اقلیم نقش اساسی را ایفا می‌کند. بررسی رابطه بین پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی و خصوصیات خاک با رژیم های رطوبتی مختلف می تواند تغییرات مشخصه های خاک های مورد مطالعه که تحت تأثیر اقلیم و رژیم رطوبتی بوده است را مشخص نماید. این تحقیق در چهار رژیم رطوبتی مختلف یودیک، زریک، اریدیک و آکوییک در یک برش اقلیمی در منطقه گرگان با مواد مادری یکسان لسی صورت گرفت. در هر رژیم 25 خاکرخ و در مجموع 100 خاکرخ حفر و تشریح شدند. در نهایت از بخش کنترل رطوبتی خاکرخ‌ها برای آزمایش‌ها استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد رژیم رطوبتی خاک باعث تفاوت‌های قابل توجهی در خصوصیات فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک‌ها شده است. از رژیم رطوبتی اریدیک به سمت رژیم رطوبتی یودیک، خاک ها از درجه تکامل خاکرخی، تنوع افق ها و افزایش مواد آلی برخوردار می باشند. نتایج نشان داد که تکامل بیشتر خاک در نتیجه تأثیر عوامل خاک‌ساز به ویژه اقلیم، عامل مهمی در تغییرات میزان اکسیدهای مغناطیسی آهن فری‌مگنتیک از نوع پدوژنیک بوده است. در رژیم رطوبتی یودیک بارندگی علاوه بر افزایش میزان سرعت هوادیدگی، موجب آزادسازی بیشتر ترکیبات آهن و افزایش نسبی آنها در نیمرخ خاک می-گردد،که باعث افزایش پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی در خاک‌ها می‌شود. در رژیم رطوبتی آکوییک به دلیل وجود حالت اشباع، انحلال مواد معدنی مغناطیسی نظیر مگنتیت و مگهمیت صورت گرفته است که متعاقباًً سبب کاهش پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی خاک شده است. حداکثر پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی در رژیم رطوبتی یودیک و حداقل در رژیم رطوبتی آکوییک مشاهده شد. در مجموع رابطه نزدیکی بین ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی خاک با رژیم رطوبتی خاک و پذیرفتاری مغناطیسی مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationships between some soil physical and chemical properties with magnetic properties in different soil moisture regimes in Golestan province

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Valaee 1
  • Sh. Ayoubi 1
  • H. Khademi 1
  • F. Khormali 2
1 Isfahan University of Technology
2 Gorgan University Agricultural and Natural Resources
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Soil moisture regime refers to the presence or absence either of ground water or of water held at a tension of less than 1500 kPa in the soil or in specific horizons during periods of the year. It is the most important factor in soil formation, soil evolution and fertility affecting on crop production and management. Also, it widely is practical in soil classification and soil mapping. The soil moisture regime depends on the soil properties, climatic and weather conditions, characteristics of natural plant formations and, in cultivated soils, is affected by the characteristics of crops grown, as well as the cultivation practices. Determination of soil moisture regime within a landscape scale requires high information and data about moisture balance of soil profile during some years according to Soil Survey Manual (2010). This approach is very expensive, labor, time and cost consuming. Therefore, achievement to an alternative approach is seems essential to overcome these problems. The main hypothesis of this study was to use capability of magnetic susceptibility as a cheap and rapid technique could determine the soil moisture regimes. Magnetic properties of soils reflect the impacts of soil mineral composition, particularly the quantity of ferrimagnetic minerals such as maghemite and magnetite. Magnetic susceptibility measurements can serve a variety of applications including the changes in soil forming processes and ecological services, understanding of lithological effects, insight of sedimentation processes and soil drainage.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in an area located between 36°46َ 10˝ and 37° 2’ 28˝ N latitudes, and 54° 29’ 31˝ and 55° 12’ 47˝ E longitudes in Golestan province, northern Iran. In the study region mean annual temperature varies from 12.4 to 19.4 °C. The average annual rainfall and evapotranspiration varies from 230 mm and 2335 mm in Inchebrun district (Aridic regime), to 732 mm and 846 mm in Touskstan uplands (Udic regime), respectively. this study was conducted in four soil moisture regimes (Aridic, Xeric, Udic and Aquic), for exploring the relationships between soil properties and magnetic measures. In each regimes, 25 soil profiles were drug, described and soil samples were collected from each of soil horizons. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved using a 2 mm sieve. The dithionite-citrate bicarbonate (DCB) method was used to measure Fed and acid ammonium oxalate for Feo. In this study, a set of environmental magnetic parameters including magnetic susceptibility at low frequency (χlf), saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM), isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM100 mT) were measured. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) was measured at low frequency (0.47 kHz; χlf) and high frequency (4.7 kHz; χhf) using a Bartington MS2 dual frequency sensor using approximately 20 g of soil held in a four-dram clear plastic vial (2.3 cm diameter). Frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd) was determined by the difference between the high and low frequency measurements as a percentage of χ at low frequency. IRM was measured at the field of 100 mT generated in a Molspin pulse magnetizer (IRM100mT) and at the back field of 100mT (IRM−100mT). The IRM acquired in the maximum field of 1000 mT was measured and defined as the saturation isothermal remnant magnetization (SIRM) of the soil sample.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that moisture regime induced significant differences for soil physical and chemical properties. Diversities in genetic soil horizons and soil development degree have been increased from Aridic to Udic soil moisture regime. The results also indicated that selected properties including magnetic measures and physical and chemical properties were significantly different in four soil moisture regimes. With increasing rainfall and reducing temperature from aridic to udic soil moisture regime, soil organic matter was increased. Otherwise, in arid environment Gypsic, Calcic and Salic horizons were observed in the near of soil surface. Fed and Fed-Feo were the highest in udic and the lowest in udic soil moisture regime, respectively. Moreover, higher soil development because of climate effect leaded to higher amount of pedogenic ferromagnetic minerals, as well as the highest were observed in the Udic regime. Otherwise, in Aquic moisture regime, the lowest value of magnetic susceptibility was obtained because of dissolution of ferromagnetic minerals (magnetite and maghemite) under supersaturating condition. In overall, close relationships were observed between soil physical and chemical properties and magnetic measures in various soil moisture regimes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • climate
  • Golesatn Province
  • Loess
  • Magnetic susceptibility
  • Soil Moisture Regimes
1- Ahmadi M. 2010. Evaluation of redistribution in hilly cultivated land using the technique of magnetic susceptibility and CS-137 in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Soil MA thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. University of Technology. (in Persian with English abstract)
2- Ayoubi S., and Jalalian A. 1996. Assessment of land (agricultural land and natural resources). Publishing Center, University of Technology. (in Persian)
3- Banaei M.H., Momeni A., Baibordi M. and Malekooti M.J. 2004. New developments in the identification, management and exploition of soils. Research Institute of soil and water. Second Sna. Part 2. Pages 1-157. (in Persian with English abstract)
4- Chia T.s. 2013. Design and Implementation of Detection Devices for Dental Implantation Stabilit: Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering. PP. 68.
5- Cox G.M., and Martinw P. 1937. The discriminant function applied to the differentiation of soil types. Iowa State Coll. Journal. Science. 11: 31-323.
6- Dearing J.1994. Environmental magnetic susceptibility. Using the Bartington MS2 system. Kenilworth, Chi Publ.
7- Dearing J., Hay K., Baban S., Huddleston A., Wellington E., and Loveland P. 1996. Magnetic susceptibility of soil: an evaluation of conflictingtheories using a national data set. Geophys. Journal. International. 127: 73-728.
8- De Jong E., Pennock D., and Nestor P. 2000. Magnetic susceptibility of soils in different slope positions in Saskatchewan, Canada. Catena. 40: 291-305.
9- Dolgov B., and Voronkov M. 1957. Gidrofobizacija stroitel'n'ih materialov pri pomosci kremneor ganiceskih soedinenii. Hydrophobization of structural materials with organosilicon compounds. Stroitel'nye materialy. 12: 50-58.
10- Frechen M. M., Kehl C., Rolf R., Sarvati and Skowronek A. 2009. Loess chronology of the Caspian lowland in northern Iran. Quaternary International. 198: 220-233.
11- Ghafarpour A. 2012. Comparison of the evolution and characteristics of modern and old soil loess the climate in different regions of the province. Soil MA thesis. Gorgan University. (in Persian)
12- Grimley D.A., Arruda N.K., and Bramstedt M.W. 2004. Using magnetic susceptibility to facilitate more rapid, reproducible and precise delineation of hydric soils in the mid western USA. Catena. 58: 183-213.
13- Hutchinson S.M. 1995. Use of magnetic and radiometric measurements to investigate erosion and sedimentation in a British upland catchment. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 20: 293-314.
14- Jackson M.L. 1975. Soil chemical analysis- advanced course. University of Wisconsin, college of agric, Department of soils, Madison, WL, USDA.
15- Khormali F., Abtahi A., and Stoops G. 2006. Micromorphology of calcitic features in highly calcareous soils of Fars Province, Southern Iran. Geoderma. 132: 31-46.
16- Lopez Granados F., Jurado Exposito M.S., Garciam Ferrer A., de la Orden M.S., and Garcia-Torres L. 2002. Spatial variability of agricultural soil parameters in southern Spain. Plant. Soil. 246: 97-105.
17- Mokhtari Karchegani P., Ayoubi S., Lu S.G., Honarju N. 2011. Use of magnetic measures to assess soil redistribution following deforestation in hilly region. Journal of Applied Geophyscis 75, 227-236. (in Persian with English abstract)
18- Mullins C. 1977. Magnetic susceptibility of the soil and its significance in soil science a review. Journal. Soil. Science. 28: 223-246.
19- Nelson R.E. 1982. Carbonate and Gypsum. PP. 181-196. In: A. L. Page, R. H. Miller, R. Keeny (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, Part II, Chemical and Microbilogical Properties, SSSA, Madison, WI.
20- Owliaie H.R., Adhami E., Jafari S., Rajai M. and Ghasemi Fasai R. 2009. The distribution of magnetic susceptibility associated with iron compounds in some soils of Fars Province. Journal soil pzvohesh. Volume 2 pages 23: 191-204. (in Persian)
21- Owliaie, H.R., R.J. Heck, and A. Abtahi. 2006a. The magnetic susceptibility of soils in Kohgilouye, Iran. Canadian Journal. Soil Science, 86: 97-107.
22- Paz Gonzalez A., Vieira S., and Taboada Castro M.T. 2000. The effect of cultivation on the spatial variability of selected properties of an umbric horizon. Geoderma. 97: 273-292.
23- Royall D. 2001. Use of mineral magnetic measurements to investigate soil erosion and sediment delivery in a small agricultural catchment in limestone terrain. Catena. 46: 15-34.
24- Torabi H., Eghbal M.K. 2002. The study examined the evolation of soil magnetic susceptibility in White River rivers in Gilan. Journal of Soil and Water Science. Volume 16: 205- 216. ( in Persian with English abstract)
25- Walker A.L. 1983. The effects of magnetite on oxalate and dithionite extractable iron. Soil. Science. Society. America. Journal. 47: 1022-1026.
26- Zar J.H. 1974. Biostatistical Analysis. Huang Prentice-Hall, Englewood Fang Cliffe, NJ.