پتانسیل‌یابی آب زیرزمینی در سازندهای سخت با بکارگیری روش‌های تصمیم‌گیری چند معیاره AHP وSAW (مطالعه موردی: حوضه آلمانه)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تبریز

چکیده

محدوده مطالعاتی آلمانه با مساحت 7011 هکتار در جنوب غرب شهرستان مریوان واقع شده است. گسترش سازندهای ماسه سنگی و آذرین در این مناطق سفره‌های سازند سخت با منابع آبی مناسب از نظر کیفی بوجود آورده‌اند که در کنار منابع آبرفتی می‌توان از این آبخوان‌های سازند سخت برای تامین منابع آب استفاده نمود. بدین منظور در این پژوهش دو روش وزن دهی تجمعی ساده و فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی با بکارگیری فن بردار ویژه، برای پتانسیل‌یابی منابع آب زیرزمینی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته و پارامترهای مختلف به صورت لایه های لیتولوژی، تراکم شکستگی، ارتفاع، شیب، پوشش گیاهی و جهت شیب و تراکم آبراهه جهت بررسی پتانسیل منابع آبی در نظر گرفته شده است. در این راستا لایه‌های اطلاعاتی مربوط به هر کدام از این معیارها تهیه و در محیط GIS و IDRISI طبقه‌بندی، وزن‌دهی و با استفاده از وزن دهی تجمعی ساده و فرآیند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی تلفیق شدند. نتایج هر کدام از روش‌ها در پنج طبقه خیلی کم، کم، متوسط، زیاد، خیلی زیاد طبقه‌بندی شد. بر اساس نقشه‌های حاصل در هر دو روش مذکور به ترتیب مناطق شمالی غربی، غربی و جنوب غربی محدوده مطالعاتی دارای پتانسیل منابع آبی بیشتری نسبت به سایر مناطق بوده و دلیل آن می‌تواند انطباق این مناطق با مناطقی با شیب و ارتفاع پایین و پوشش گیاهی بالا و وجود پوششی از لایه تغذیه کننده آبرفتی سازند سخت باشد. مقایسه نتایج حاصل از دو روش با هم پوشانی موقعیت چشمه‌های موجود در منطقه و بررسی ارتباط بین تعداد چشمه‌ها و موقعیت قرار گیری آن‌ها بر روی مناطقی با آسیب‌پذیری متفاوت نشان می دهد که در محدوده مورد مطالعه روشAHP نسبت به SAW نتایج بهتری را نشان می دهد. بر اساس این روش بیش از 50 درصد منطقه دارای پتانسیل منابع آبی متوسط به بالایی می‌باشد که بیشتر مناطق غربی و مرکزی محدوده را شامل می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Potential Groundwater Resources in Fractured Rocks using AHP and SAW Methods (Case Study: Almaneh Basin, Marivan, Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Vaezihir
  • mehri tabarmayeh
University of Tabriz
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Ground water as a dynamic and recyclable natural resource in fractured rock terrains are characterized by single and double fracture porosity models. Due to the heterogeneous nature of the medium hydraulic properties of these rocks are mainly controlled by fracturing and influenced by multivariate parameters. This heterogeneity is due to various compactions , density of fractures and degree of weathering. Therefore, regarding the importance of ground water resources in social and economic development, the study of fractured rock aquifers especially in arid and semi-arid regions is of interest. In this paper zoning of aquifers has been carried out according to their potential using concept of overlaying of drastic parameters on groundwater development.

Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the southwest of Marivan city, Iran. Due to the existence of sandstone and igneous formations and tectonic activities, fractured aquifers, was probably developed. In this paper, Simple Additive Weighted (SAW) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) using eigenvectors were used to find ground water resources. In order to evaluate the groundwater potential sources, lithology, fracture density, elevation, slope, aspect, drainage density and land use parameters were considered. For this purpose, layers of these information were provided in the IDRISI and GIS medium and then sorted and weighted using the weighted cumulative integrate AHP and SAW methods. The index of ground water potential sources was determined by multiplying each raster layer by its corresponding weighting factor assigned by the AHP and SAW methods. Finally the potential groundwater zoning map was generated by cumulating the seven individual rating and weighting maps.
Results and Discussion: According to the output map of AHP model, 56.8 percent of the total study area had a very high water potential and this includes 94.26 percent with high potential and areas with moderate, low and very low water potential included 22.96, 24.96 and 17.07%, respectively. Regarding to the paired comparison AHP model, despite of direct determination of the weight of the SAW model, weight classes of each criterion were achieved according to the preferred class of all classes to the criteria. It is normal that the results from these two models will be different, so that according to SAW method, 0.73,13.07,30.16,18.65,7.37% of study area included area with very high, high, moderate, low and very low groundwater potential resources, respectively. For validation of two mentioned models (AHP and SAW models), The map of springs location were overlaid on the map of potential sources of groundwater of these two methods and the results showed a good agreement with the model of the position of the spring.
Conclusion: In This study the AHP and SAW models were used to finding underground water sources. The results showed that in both methods, highly potential water resources areas were mainly located in the northwest of the study area and the west and southwest area had higher potential water resources relative to the east part of the study area. This could be due to low slope and elevation or may be related to the alluvial deposits which covered upper parts of the hard rock with low thickness and this plays a main role in recharging of hard rock.
However, comparing the results of the two methods showed that AHP method has better results than the SAW. The result of AHP map showed that the east and center part of the study area had moderate to high groundwater potential which consist of about 50% of area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Almaneh
  • Analytic Hierarchy Process
  • Groundwater potential
  • Simple Additive Weighted
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