رابطه خاک با اقلیم و سطوح ژئومورفیک در منطقه راین استان کرمان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

چکیده

عوامل خاک‌سازی در تشکیل و تکامل خاک‌های هر منطقه مؤثر می‌باشند. در بین عوامل خاک‌سازی تأثیر متقابل اقلیم و توپوگرافی (اشکال اراضی) بر شدت هوادیدگی و تخریب مواد مادری، روند پیدایش و تکامل خاک‌ها را تحت تأثیر قرار می‌دهد. این پژوهش به بررسی اثرات توأم اقلیم و ژئومورفولوژی بر خصوصیات خاک می‌پردازد. منطقه مورد مطالعه از ارتفاعات کوه هزار واقع در نزدیکی شهر راین آغاز و به سطوح فلات واقع در نزدیکی شهر بم ختم شد. رژیم‌های رطوبتی خاک منطقه، زریک و اریدیک و رژیم حرارتی آن، مزیک می‌باشد. تعداد 9 خاکرخ در اشکال اراضی پدیمنت سنگی، پدیمنت پوشیده، دشت دامنه‌ای، فلات و دشت، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. نتایج افزایش قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی از پدیمنت سنگی به طرف دشت و کاهش آن را در رژیم زریک نسبت به اریدیک نشان داد. وجود افق آرجیلیک در خاکرخ 5، مربوط به اقلیم کنونی و در خاکرخ‌های 8 و 9، مربوط به رطوبت قابل دسترس بیش‌تر در اقلیم گذشته است. تغییر رده خاک در سطح پدیمنت سنگی از اریدی‌سول به اینسپتی‌سول به‌علت تغییر رژیم رطوبتی می‌باشد. پوشش‌ها و پرشدگی‌های کلسیت، گچ و رس و بلورهای منفرد گچ و صفحات در هم قفل شده گچ از عوارض خاک‌ساخت غالب منطقه بودند. کانی‌های ایلیت، کلریت، کائولینیت، اسمکتیت و کوارتز در اشکال اراضی پدیمنت سنگی و پدیمنت پوشیده و کانی پالیگورسکیت منحصراً در شکل اراضی پدیمنت پوشیده مشاهده گردید. نتایج بیان‌گر ارتباط نزدیک خاک با اقلیم و ژئومورفولوژی می‌باشند. تغییر اقلیم و توپوگرافی در منطقه بر خصوصیات خاک‌ها و در نهایت طبقه‌بندی خاک‌های منطقه مؤثر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Genesis as Affected by Climate and Geomorphic Surface in Rayen Area, Kerman Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Leili Neghadzamani
  • Mohammad Hady Farpoor
  • Azam Jafari
Shahid Bahonar University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Genesis and development of soils are highly affected by soil forming factors and processes. Climate and topography (landform) are among the factors affecting weathering of parent material and genesis and development of soils in an area. Besides, various morphological, physical, and chemical properties, micromorphology, and clay mineralogy of soils at different geomorphic positions are usually affected by different soil forming factors including parent material and climate. The objectives of the present research were to study the effect of climate and geomorphology on physicochemical properties, micromorphology, and clay mineralogy of the soils in Rayen area, Kerman Province.
Materials and Methods: The study area starts from Hezar mountain elevations close to Rayen city (south east of Kerman Province) and extends to plateaus surfaces around Bam city. Quaternary and Neogene formations were found from geology point of view. Mean annual precipitation is in the range of 200-300 mm. Five landforms including rock pediment, mantled pediment, piedmont plain, plateaus, and valley were investigated during field work followed by topography, geology, and Google map studies in the area. According to 1:2500000 map provided by Soil and Water Research Institute, xeric and aridic soil moisture regimes together with mesic soil temperature regime were found in the area. Nine representative pedons were studied based on climatic regimes and different geomorphic surfaces. Pedons 1 and 2 were located on rock pediment with an aridic soil moisture regime. On the other hand, pedon 3 was located on the same surface, but with xeric moisture regime. Pedons 4 and 5 were also located on mantled pediment with aridic and xeric moisture regimes, respectively. Pedon 6 was located on piedmont plain and in the aridic moisture zone. Pedons 7, 8 (Plateaus), and 9 (Valley) were all in the aridic moisture zone. Physical and chemical properties, micromorphology, and clay mineralogy of soils were investigated and the soils were classified using USDA Soil Taxonomy (12th edition) and latest edition of World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) systems.
Results and Discussion: Cambic, gypsic, argillic (or argic), calcic, and petrocalcic horizons were investigated during field and laboratory studies. Typic Haplocambids (pedons 1 and 2), Typic Calcixerepts (pedon 3), Typic Torriorthents (pedon 8), Calcic Petrocalcids (pedon 7), Typic Calcigypsids (pedon 6), Typic Xerorthents (pedon 5), Typic Haplocalcids (pedon 4), and Typic Calciargids (pedon 9) were classified using Soil Taxonomy (2014) and Gypsisols (pedon 6), Calcisols (pedons 3, 4, 7, and 9), Cambisols (pedons 1 and 2), and Regosols (pedons 5 and 8) Reference Soil Groups were determined using WRB (2015) system. Electrical conductivity increased from rock pediment toward valley and decreased from aridic toward xeric soil moisture regimes. Formation of argillic horizon in pedon 5 (Xeric moisture regime) was attributed to the climate of present time, but pedons 8 and 9 with aridic moisture regime could probably have experienced a climate with more available humidity for argillic horizon to be formed. Besides, petrocalcic horizon formation in pedon 7 was also attributed to a climate with more available humidity in the past. A buried soil (Btkb horizon) was determined in pedons 5 and 8 under the modern soil. Soil moisture regime change from aridic to xeric in rock pediment surface caused change of Aridisol to Inceptisol, but classification of soils in WRB system, was not affected. Secondary forms of calcium carbonate including powdery pocket, soft masses, and mycelium and secondary gypsum such as fine and coarse pendants were found during field studies. Calcite, gypsum, and clay coatings and infillings together with isolated gypsum crystals and gypsum interlocked plates were among dominant micromorphological pedofeatures investigated. Calcite coatings on aggregates and soil particles associated with clay coating prove the role of paleoclimate in soil formation. On the other hand, presence of manganaze nodules is an evidence of oxidation/reduction condition taken place in the xeric moisture conditions of pedon 5 (rock pediment). Illite, chlorite, kaolinite, and smectite were investigated in both rock and mantled pediments, but palygorskite was only found in mantled pediments. Climate also played a significant role in determining the source (pedogenic or geogenic) of clay minerals.
Conclusions: Results of this study clearly showed the close relationship among soil formation, topography (geomorphic surface) and climate. Soil physicochemical properties, micromorphology, clay mineralogy, and soil classification were highly affected by climate and geomorphology.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Argillic horizon
  • Bam
  • paleoclimate
  • Palygorskite
  • Pedofeatures
1- Ahmadipour H., and Maleki L. 2009. Volcanology and pathogenesis of Hezar volcanic complex in south west of Rayen (Kerman Province). Iranian Journal of Geology, 3 (10): 47-58. (in Persian)
2- Anjos L.H., Fernandes M.R., Pereira M.G., and Franzmeier D.P. 1998. Landscape and pedogenesis of an Oxisols-Inceptisols-Ultisols sequence in southeastern Brazil. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62: 1651-1659.
3- Banaei H.M. 1998. Soil Moisture and Temperature Regimes Map of Iran (1:2500000). Soil and Water Research Institute, Iran.
4- Bayat A., Farpoor M.H., and Jafari A. 2016. Physicochemical properties, micromorphology and clay mineralogy of soils affected by geological formations, geomorphology and climate. Journal of Water and Soil, 30 (5): 1515-1530. (in Persian with English abstract)
5- Bockheim J.G., and Douglass D.C. 2006. Origin and significance of calcium carbonate in soils of southwestern Patagonia. Geoderma, 136: 751-762.
6- Bojko O., and Kabala C. 2017. Organic carbon pools in mountain soils-sources of variability predicted changes in relation to climate and land use changes. Catena, 149: 209-220.
7- Bonifacio E., Falsone G., Simonov G., Sokolova T., and Tolpeshta I. 2009. Pedogenic Processes and clay transformations in bisequal soils of the southern Taiga zone. Geoderma, 149: 66-75.
8- Bouyoucos G.J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron, 54: 464-465.
9- Bull W.B. 1991.Geomorphic Response to Climatic Change. Oxford University Press, New York.
10- Dixon J.B., and Weed S.B. 1989. Minerals in Soil Environments. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.
11- Donkin M.J., and Fey M.V. 1993. Relationships between soil properties and climatic indices in southern Natal. Geoderma, 59: 197-212.
12- Drees L.R., and Wilcing L.D. 1987. Micromorphic record and interpretations of carbonate forms in the rolling plains of Texas. Geoderma, 40: 157-175.
13- Elliott P.E., and Dorhan P.J. 2009. Clay accumulation and argillic-horizon development as influenced by aeolian vs. local parent material on quartzite and limestone-derived alluvial fans. Geoderma, 151: 98-108.
14- Farpoor M.H., Eghbal M.K., and Khademi H. 2003. Genesis and micromorphology of saline and gypsiferous Aridisols on different geomorphic surfaces in Nough area, Rafsanjan. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Water and Soil Science, 7 (3): 71-93. (in Persian)
15- Farpoor M.H., Khademi H., and Eghbal M.K. 2002. Genesis and distribution palygorskite and associated clay minerals in Rafsanjan soils on different geomorphic surface. Iran Agricultural Research, 21: 39-60.
16- Farpoor M.H., Neyestani M., Eghbal M.K., and Esfandiarpour Borujeni I. 2012. Soil-geomorphology relationships in Sirjan playa, south central Iran. Geomorphology, 138: 223-230.
17- Fedoroff N., Courty M.A., and Thompson M.L. 1990. Micromorphological evidence of paleoenvironmental change in Pleistocene and Holocene paleosols. Developments in Soil Science, 19: 653-665.
18- Fitzpatrick E.A. 1993. Soil Microscopy and Micromorphology. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
19- Geographic Institute and Defence Ministry. 2003. Geographic Glossary of Kerman Province Villages, Kerman City.
20- Ghergherechi S. 2007. Micromorphology and Genesis of the Soils Formed on a Climotoposequence, north-south western Golestan Province. M.Sc. Thesis, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resourses. (In Persian)
21- Gile L.H. 1993. Carbonate stages in study soils of the Leasburg surface, southern New Mexico. Soil Science, 156: 101-110.
22- Graham R.C., and Boul S.W. 1990. Soil-geomorphic relations on the Blue Ridge Front: II. Soil characteristics and pedogenesis. Soil Science Society of America Journal, ‌54 (5):1367-1377.
23- Hojati S., Khademi H., and Cano A.F. 2010. Palygorskite formation under the influence of saline and alkaline groundwater in central Iranian soils. Soil Science, 175: 303-312. (in Persian)
24- Hopkins D.G., and Franzen D.W. 2003. Argillic horizons in stratified drift: luverne end moraine, eastern North Dakota. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 67: 1790-1796.
25- IUSS Working Group WRB. 2015. World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, update 2015, International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, Rome, Italy.
26- Jackson M.L. 1975. Soil Chemical Analysis: Advanced Course. University of Wisconsin, College of Agriculture, Department of Soils, Madison, Wisconsin.
27- Jafari M., and Sarmadian F. 2003. Fundamentals of Soil Science. Tehran University Press. (In Persion)
28- Jolicoeur S., Ildefons P., and Bouchard M. 2000. Kaolinite and gibbsite weathering of biotite within saprolites and soils of central Virginia. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64: 1118-1129.
29- Khademi H., and Mermut A.R. 1998. Source of palygorskite gypsiferous Aridisols and associated sediments from central Iran. Clay Minerals, 33: 561-578.
30- Khademi H., and Mermut A.R. 2003. Micromorphology and classification of Argids and associated gypsiferous Aridisols from central Iran. Catena, 54: 430-455.
31- Khormali F., Abtahi A., and Stoops G. 2006. Micromorphology of calcitic features in highly calcareous soils of Fars Province, southern Iran. Geoderma, 132: 31-46.
32- Khormali F., Abtahi A., Mahmoodi S., and Stoops G. 2003. Argillic horizon development in calcareous soils of arid and semiarid regions of southern Iran. Catena, 53: 273-301.
33- Khormali F., and Abtahi A. 2003. Origin and distribution of clay minerals in calcareous arid and semi-arid soils of Fars Province, southern Iran. Clay Minerals, 38: 511-527.
34- Kittric J.A., and Hope E.W. 1963. A procedure for the particle size separation of soil for x-ray diffraction analysis. Soil Science Society, 96: 312-325.
35- Lanyon L.E., and Heald W.R. 1982. Magnesium, calcium, strontion and barium. p. 247-260. In A.L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
36- Liaghat M., and Khormali F. 2010. Micromorphology of development of some loess-derived soils of western Golestan Province along a climo-topo-biosequence. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 18 (1):1- 32. (in Persian with English abstract)
37- Malkooti M.J., and Homayi M. 1994. Soil Fertility in Arid Regions. Tarbiat Modarres University Press. (In Persian)
38- Moazallahi M., and Farpoor M.H. 2012. Soil genesis and clay mineralogy along xeric-aridic climotoposequence in south central Iran. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 14: 683-696.
39- Monger H.C., and Adams H.P. 1996. Micromorphology of calcite-silica deposits, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60: 519-530.
40- Murphy C.P. 1986. Thin Section Preparation of Soils and Sediments. AB Academic Publishers, Berkhamsted, Herts, UK.
41- Nelson D.W., and Sommers L.E. 1982. Total carbon, organic matter. p. 539-577. In A.L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
42- Nelson R.E. 1982. Carbonate and gypsum. p. 181-196. In A.L. Page et al. (ed.) Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
43- Nettleton W.D., Flach K.W., and Brusher B.R. 1969. Argillic horizons without clay skins. Soil Science Society of America, Proceedings, 33: 121–125.
44- Nodert L., Von Fischer J., and Tieszen L. 2007. Late Quaternary temperature record form buried soils of the North American Great Plains. Geology, 35: 159-162.
45- Owliaie H.R., Abtahi A., and Heck R.J. 2006. Pedogenesis and clay mineralogical investigation of soils formed on gypsiferous and calcareous materials, on a transect, southwestern Iran. Geoderma, 134: 62-81.
46- Page A.L., Miller R.H., and Kenney D.R. 1992. Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr. 9. ASA and SSSA, Madison, WI.
47- Paquet H., and Millot C. 1972. Geochemical evolution of clay minerals in the weathered products and soils of Mediterranean climates. p. 199-202. In Proceedings of the 9th International Clay Conference. Madrid, Spain.
48- Phillips J., Turkingtan A.V., and Marine D.A. 2008. Weathering and vegetation affection early stages of soil formation. Catena, 72: 21-28.
49- Rameshni K., and Abtahi A. 1995. Effect of climate and topography on the formation of the soils of Kuhgiluye area. In Proceedings of the 4th Congress of Soil Science. Isfahan, Iran.
50- Saez A., Ingles M., Cabrera L., and Heras A. 2003. Tectonic paleo environmental forcing of clay-mineral assemblages in non marine setting: the Oligocene-Miocene Aspontes Basin (Spain). Sedimentary Geology, 159: 305-324.
51- Salehi M.H., Khdemi H., and Eghbal M.K. 2002. Genesis of clay minerals in soils from Chaharmehal Bakhtiari Province, Iran. Book of Abstracts of the Conference on Sustainable Use and Management of Soils in Arid and Semiarid Region. Cartagena, Spain.
52- Sanjari S., Farpoor M.H., Eghbal M.K., and Esfandiarpoor Boroujeni I. 2011. Genesis, micromorphology and clay mineralogy of soils located on different geomorphic surfaces in Jiroft area. Journal of Water and Soil, 25 (2): 411- 425. (in Persian with English abstract)
53- Schoeneberger P.J., Wysocki D.A., Benham E.C., and Soil Survey Staff. 2012. Field Book for Describing and Sampling Soils, Version 3.0. Natural Resources Conservation Service, National Soil Survey Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.
54- Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th edition. United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, D.C., USA.
55- Stoops G. 2003. Guidelines for the Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.
56- Toomanian N., Jalalian A., Eghbal M.K. 2001. Genesis of gypsum enriched soils in north-west Isfahan, Iran. Geoderma, 99: 199-224.
57- Yoo K., Amundson R., Heimsath A.M., and Dietrich W.E. 2006. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon on hillslopes: integrating geomorphic processes and the biological C cycle. Geoderma, 130: 47-5.
58- Zarate M.A., Kemp R.A., and Blasi A.M. 2002. Identification and differentiation of Pleistocene paleosols in northern Pampas of Bueneos Aires, Argentina. Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 15: 303-310.
59- Zeraatpishe M., and Khormali F. 2011. The investigation of soil formation and evolution of losses derived soils in a climosequence, case study: eastern of Golestan Province. Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 18 (2): 45-64. (in Persian with English abstract)