عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Millions of tons of trees pruning waste are produced annually in Iran, which can contribute to supplying soil organic matter. Soils in arid and semi-arid regions, due to lack of sufficient vegetation and the return of low amounts of plant residues to the soil, contain little organic matter. These soils are often calcareous, and as a result, many plants in these soils are faced with nutritional problems, especially phosphorus deficiency. Phosphorus, as an essential element for plant growth, combines with soil components and changes into less soluble and insoluble compounds in calcareous soils with low amounts of organic matter. Organic matter and biological amendments can affect the solubility and mobility of nutrients in the rhizosphere and improve their bioavailability by creating different chemical and biological conditions. The pruning waste of trees can be used to produce biochar and compost and consequently improves soil physical and chemical properties and plays an important role in the dynamics and living of soil microorganisms. Biochar is a carbon-rich solid material produced during pyrolysis which is the thermal degradation of biomass under oxygen limited conditions. It has recently received much attention as a soil amendment which can be used to increase nutrient availability, improve the soil microbial diversity and biological activities such as enzyme activity in rhizosphere and sequester carbon in agricultural soils. In addition, compost is a chemical derived product from organic waste and contains many beneficial elements that are gradually released into soil and available to plants. Another approach to improve the bioavailability and mobility of phosphorus in the rhizosphere is the use of potential of phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Limiting the roots to examine the biological and chemical changes and the extent to which these properties have expanded in the rhizosphere are challenges that have been less addressed .Rhizobox is one of the systems used to study rhizosphere changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar and compost prepared from pruning waste of apples and grapes trees as well as microbial inoculation on phosphatase activity and phosphorus availability at wheat rhizosphere under rhizobox condition.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement in three replications, under greenhouse condition in rhizobox. The factors were organic matter (pruning waste biochar (PWB), pruning waste compost (PWC) and control (without organic matter)), microbial inoculation (AMF and PGPR) and soil type (rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil). For this purpose, a soil sample with light texture and low available phosphorus content was prepared. PWB used in the experiment was produced from mix pruning waste of apple and grape at the final temperature of approximately 350°C for 3 hours. Moreover, pruning waste compost of apple and grape trees was prepared from Department of Soil Science, Urmia University. The biochar and compost were ground and screened through a 0.5 mm sieve for the greenhouse experiment. The seeds of wheat were planted in 20 × 15 × 20 cm rhizobox (length, width and height). At greenhouse experiment, the biochar and compost were added to the boxes in terms of 1.5% pure organic carbon before planting (each box contained 5.8 kg of soil). In control treatments (without organic matter), sterile soil was used with microbial inoculation. Microbial strains used for inoculation included Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida) and mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus fasciculatum). Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Pishtaz) were grown in rhizobox. At the end of the vegetative growth period, acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes activities were asseyedassayed by spectrophotometry method. Soil available P was extracted with 0.5 M NaHCO3 (Olsen-P) in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils and phosphorus concentrations in the root and shoot were determined by the standard method.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the application of PWC and microbial inoculation significantly increased ACP and ALP enzymes activity and the availability of phosphorus compared to the control. The highest increase in ALP enzyme activity and available phosphorus was observed in PWC treatment inoculated with PGPR. Furthermore, PWC increased the ACP and ALP enzymes activities in the rhizosphere soil by 1.39 and 1.33 times compared to non-rhizosphere soil, respectively. However, phosphorus availability in the non-rhizosphere soil of the PWC treatment was 21.19% higher than that in the rhizosphere soil. The lowest available phosphorus content was observed in rhizosphere soil of AMF treatment. In addition, the highest phosphorus concentrations in plant root and shoot were, respectively, found in the compost and biochar treatments inoculated with AMF. In PWB treatment, the inoculation of AMF increased shoot phosphorus concentration by 1.31 times relative to PGPR inoculation.
Conclusions: In general, applying organic matter and microbial inoculation had a significant positive effect on phosphorus availability and plant growth. Adding organic matter to the soil, such as compost and inoculation with microorganisms particularly PGPR bacteria in the root zone, led to increased soil available phosphorus. The activity of phosphatases in soil was influenced by using organic materials such as compost and microbial inoculation which enhance the bioavailability of inorganic phosphorus. More positive interaction of PWC and PWB with AMF than PGPR in the rhizosphere caused greater increase of phosphorus bioavailability in the root zone and plant phosphorus uptake. In general, according to the results of this study, it seems that the use of organic materials and biological potential of the microorganisms have a significant effect on phosphorus availability and improve plant growth.