تأثیر زئولیت، ورمی‌کمپوست و کود حیوانی بر رشد و جذب عناصر کم مصرف در ذرت

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

زئولیت عموماً به عنوان یک ماده اصلاحی برای خاک استفاده می‌شود. اضافه کردن برخی از مواد معدنی نظیر زئولیت علی‌رغم تأثیر مثبت بر خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک می‌تواند در سطوح زیاد تأثیر منفی بر جذب عناصر غذایی و رشد گیاه داشته باشد. به همین منظور آزمایش گلدانی با هدف بررسی تأثیر زئولیت، کود حیوانی و ورمی‌کمپوست بر رشد و جذب عناصرکم مصرف در گیاه ذرت به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار در گلخانه پژوهشی تحت شرایط کنترل شده انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل زئولیت در سه سطح (صفر، 6 و 12 درصد وزنی)، نوع ماده آلی شامل ورمی‌کمپوست در سه سطح (صفر، 125/0 و، 25/0 درصد وزنی) و کود گاوی پوسیده در سه سطح (صفر، 5/0 و، 1 درصد وزنی) بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد در بین سطح 6 و 12 درصد زئولیت، سطح 6 درصد آن نسبت به 12 درصد کارایی بهتری داشته است و سطح 12 درصد زئولیت نسبت به شاهد باعث کاهش 19 درصدی وزن خشک گیاه و کاهش وزن تر، که کاهش وزن تر نسبت به شاهد معنی‌دار نبود. همچنین این سطح زئولیت جذب عنصر روی، آهن و منگنز در گیاه کاهش داد و به ترتیب سبب افزایش 93/8 و 40 درصدی pH و غلظت منگنز خاک شد. در بین تیمارهای آزمایشی، سطح 1 درصد کود گاوی در عدم حضور زئولیت بیشترین مقدار وزن تر و خشک گیاه، ارتفاع گیاه، جذب عناصر روی، آهن و منگنز در اندام هوایی گیاه را دارا بود. همچنین کمترین مقدار pH خاک مربوط به این سطح بوده که اختلاف معنی‌داری نسبت به بقیه تیمارها و همچنین تیمار شاهد داشت. در نهایت در بین تیمارهای آزمایشی، کارایی ورمی‌کمپوست نسبت به کود گاوی کمتر بوده و بیشترین تأثیر بر رشد و جذب عناصر کم مصرف در گیاه ذرت مربوط به تیمارهای کود گاوی و کمترین مربوط به تیمار زئولیت بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Zeolite, Manure and Vermicompost on Growth and Micronutrients Uptake by Corn

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyyedeh Zohreh Taghdisi heydarian
  • Reza Khorassani
  • Hojat Emami
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The amount of soil nutrients and their availability for plants are the important aspects of soil fertility. Although micronutrients are used by plants in very small amounts, they play an active role in many plant-based processes and reactions influencing the plant growth and yield. The efficiency of absorption of micronutrient can be increased by adding some organic and mineral materials to soil. Saha et al. (41) observed an increase in micronutrient concentration of corn grain by adding organic materials to soil. Zeolite is one of the most commonly minerals used to increase agricultural production (17). The zeolites, due to their structure and porosity, are well-suited for retaining the nutrients and gradually releasing them into the root zone (40).Despite the positive effects of zeolite on some physical and chemical properties of soil, its application at high levels may adversely affect the absorption of nutrients and plant growth. Hamidpour et al. (18) who used zeolite for Zinnia flower, reported that zeolite reduced the yield of Zinnia flower. Basari et al. (4) reported that zeolite application increased soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC). Therefore, this research was carried out with the aim of assessing the influence of zeolite application, type (i.e. vermicompost and cow manure) and organic matter levels on the growth and the micronutrients uptake and determining the appropriate composition for corn.
Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse under controlled condition.The treatments consisted of raw zeolite (natural) in three levels (0, 6, 12% by weight), organic matter including vermicompost in three levels (0, 0.125, 0.25% or 0, 5, 10 t ha-1) and cow manure at three levels (0, 0.5, 1% by weight or 0, 20, 40 t ha-1).The soil was collected at a depth of 0-30 cm from the Mashhad Soil and Water Research Center. General soil characteristics and micronutrients concentration (iron, zinc and manganese) were determined according to standard methods (14, 27). For vermicompost and cow manure, some parameters such as pH and EC, organic carbon (46), available phosphorus and potassium (21), total nitrogen (7) and micronutrient (iron, zinc and manganese) were also measured (21). Further, pH, EC and micronutrient (iron, zinc, and manganese) were measured for natural zeolite (27). The pots were prepared by mixing 5 kg soil and experimental materials. N, P, and K were added according to soil testing. Irrigation with distilled water at field capacity level was done during the growth period. The plants were harvested75 days after sowing and after separating shoot and root, the plant materials were transferred to laboratory. Root and shoot dry weight were determined and after dry digesting of plant materials, the concentration of micronutrient were quantified by Atomic Absorption (21). The soil samples were also analyzed in order to determine the chemical properties of the soil after harvesting. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using JMP software and the mean comparison was carried out based on LSD test at 5% probability level.
Results and Discussion: The results of the experiment showed that increasing zeolite levels reduced dry weight, decreased height and uptake of zinc, iron and manganese and increased soil pH and iron and manganese concentrations. In addition, it was observed that the zeolite application had a negative effect on the plant growth and micronutrients uptake. Burriesci et al. (8) concluded that the zeolite application without fertilizing seems not to considerably increase plant growth. According to Kimberly and Nelson (24), the use of natural zeolite, without adding nutrients, leads to a competition between plant roots and zeolite for the nutrients absorption. Sarmetzidis et al. (42) showed that zeolite had no effect on the growth and yield of roses. Kolar et al. (25) reported that increasing the amount of zeolite in the geranium cultivar increased pH and the plants growth. At lower levels of zeolite, shoot fresh and dry weight was larger than that in higher levels of zeolite. Our results also denoted that the maximum amount of plant dry weight, plant height, the micronutrient (zinc, iron and manganese) uptake and the lowest soil pH were observed for the treatment of cow manure (1 %) in the absence of zeolite which had a significant difference relative to other treatments and also control. Shirani et al. (44) reported that the application of cow manure significantly increased corn dry matter. Ortiz and Alkaniz (36) showed that using organic fertilizers enhances the amount of absorbent metals such as iron, zinc and manganese as these metals are in a soluble and exchangeable form in these fertilizers. By releasing organic acids, the organic fertilizers, especially cow manure, reduce the localized pH of soil and increase the iron uptake by plants during the mineralization process.
Conclusion: According to the results, the use of zeolite increased soil pH, decreased corn growth and micronutrient uptake. Applying organic materials with zeolite can reduce the mentioned negative effect of zeolite. Cow manure at lowest level was more efficient than vermicompost at all levels. Overall, adding cow manure can improve the plant growth and micronutrient uptake by plant when the zeolite is intended to be used to modify soil physical characteristic.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cow manure
  • Organic matter
  • Plant nutrition
  • Zeolite
1- Achieng J.O., Ouma G., Odhiambo G., and Muyekho F. 2010. Effect of farmyard manure and inorganic fertilizers on maize production on Alfisols and Ultisols in Kakamega, Western Kenya. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1:430-439.
2- Allah Dadi A., Akbari G.h., Ghahremani V.Z. 2007. Vermicompost production and lateral products. First Edition.Tehran University Press.
3- Andry H., Yamamoto T., and Inoue M. 2009. Influence of artificial zeolite and hydrated lime amendments on the erodibility of an acidic soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 40(7-8): 1053-1072.
4- Basari M.H.A., Abdu A., Jusop S., Ahmed O.H., Abdul-Hamid H., Kusno M.A., Zainal B., Sen in A.L., Junejo N. 2013. Effect of mixed organic and inorganic Fertilizers Application on Soil properties and the growth of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Culitiva on brise Soils. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 10 (12): 1586-1597.
5- Böhme M., and Lua H. 1997. Influence of mineral and organic treatments in the rhizosphere on the growth of tomato palnts. Acta Horticulture Abstract. I.S. Growing Media and Plant Nutrition in Horticulture.
6- Bower C.A., Reitmeir R. F., and Fireman M. 1952. Exchangeable cation analysis of saline and alkali soils. Soil Science, 73(4): 251-261.
7- Bremner J.M., and Mulvaney C.S. 1982. Nitrogen-total. Pp: 595-624. In A.L. page , Miller, RH, Keeney, RR, (Eds), Methods of soil analysis, and Part 2. Second ed. American society of agronomy, Madison, WI..
8- Castaldi P., Santona L., Enzo S., Melis P. 2008. Sorption processes and XRD analysis of a natural zeolite exchanged with Pb2+, Cd2+ and Zn2+ cations. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 156(1-3): 428-434.
9- Cattlet K.M., Heil D.M., Lindsay W.L., and Ebinger M.H. 2002. Chemical properties controlling Zn+2 activities in 18 Colorado soils. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 66: 1182-1189.
10- Chapman H.D. 1965. Cation exchange capacity. PP. 891–901. In: Black, C. A., (Ed.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Madison (WI): Am. Society of Agronomy.
11- Colella C., de’Gennaro M., and Aiello R. 2001. Use of zeolitic tuff in the building industry. In D.L. Bish and D.W. Ming (eds) Natural Zeolites: Occurrence, Properties, Applications. Rev in Mineral. and Geochem. Vol. 45, Washington, D.C., 551-587.
12- Ekaterina G. F., and Christos D.T. 2002. Influence of clinoptilolite and compost on soil properties. Taylor and Francis Publishing, 33(3): 595-607.
13- Fageria N.K., Baligar V.C., and Jones C.A. 2010. Growth and Mineral Nutrition of Field Crops. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Fl. USA.
14- Gee G.W., and Bauder J.W. 1986. Methods of Soil Analysis, Part I, Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI. Particle-size analysis In A. Klute (ed.). 383-410.
15- Gul A., Erogǒl D., and Ongun A.R. 2005. Comparison of the use of zeolite and perlite as substrate for crisp-head lettuce. Sci. Hort, 106: 464-471.
16- Gutie´rrez-Miceli F.A., Moguel-Zamudio M., Archila A. and Dendooven L. 2008. Sheep manure vermin compost supplemented with a native diazotrophic bacteria and mycorrhiza for maize cultivation. Bioresource Technology, 99: 7020-7026.
17- Guttery G., and Galle E. 1985. “Natural Zeolite“ Springer. Berlin.
18- Hamidpour M., Shariatmadari H., and Soleimani M. 2012. Zeoponic systems. PP. 588-600. In: Inglezakis, V. J. and A. A. Zorpas (Eds.), Handbook of Natural Zeolites, Bentham Science Publ.,Sharjah, UAE.
19- Havlin J.L., Beaton J.D., Tisdale S.L., and Nelson W.L. 2005. Soil fertility and fertilizers: an introduction to nutrient management, 7th edn. Prentice Hall, NewYork.
20- Jami Allahmadi M., Kamkar B., Mahdavi Damghani A. 2006. Agriculture, Fertilizer and Environment (translation). First edition of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad.
21- Jones JB. 2001. Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 27-160.
22- Khashei siouki A. M., Kochak zadeh v., Shahabi far M. 2008. The Effect of Application of Clinoptilolite Natural Zeolite and Soil Moisture on Corn Yield Components. Soil Research (Soil and Water Science), 22(2): 235-241. (In Persian)
23- Khodabande N. 2013. Agriculture Cereals. 11th edition of Tehran University Press, Tehran. pp.416-470 (In Persian)
24- Kimberly A.W., and Nelson P.V. 1997. Using precharged zeolite as a source of potassium and phosphate in soilless container medium during potted chrysanthemum production. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 122:703-708.
25- Kolar M., Dubsky M., Sramek F., and Pintar M. 2010. The effect of natural zeolite in peat base growing media on pelargonium zonale plants. Europ. Horticultural Science, 75(5): 226-230.
26- Kuo S. 1996. Phosphorus. pp. 869-920. In: Sparks D. L. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical methods, SSSA and ASA, Madison.
27- Lindsay W.L., and Norvell W.A. 1978. Development of a DTPA test for zinc, iron, manganese and copper. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 42: 421-448.
28- Maloupa M., Samartzidis C., Couloumbis P., and Komninou A. 1999. Yield quality and photosynthetic activity of greenhouse grown ‘Madelon’ rose on perlite-zeolite substrate mixtures. Acta Horticulture, 481:97-99.
29- Mbatha A.N. 2008. Influence of organic fertilisers on the yield and quality of cabbage and carrots. PhD Thesis, University of the Free State Bloemfantein, Germany.
30- Moreno N., Querol X., and Ayora C. 2001. “Utilization of zeolite synthesized from coal fly ash for the purification of acid mine waters.” Environ. Science Technology, 35: 3526-3534.
31- Mishra M., Jain S. 2011. Properties and applications of zeolites: A Review. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section, 81:111.
32- Mirlohi A., Noorbakhsh F., and Razavi J. 2003. Effect of addition of farmyard manure in rice-barley, maize barley on some chemical and physical properties. Proceedings of the 8th Soil Science Congress. September, Rasht, Iran, 9-12. (In Persian)
33- Mottaghi L, Allahdadi I, Sirani Rad A.H, Akbari GH.A, and Hasanloo T. 2014. The effect of zeolite on yield and yield components of rapeseed under drought conditions. Quarterly journal of crops improvement, 16 (2): 381-397.
34- Mumpton F. 1999. La roca magica: Uses of natural zeolites in agriculture and industry. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. USA, 96:3463-3470.
35- Munir J.M., Nabila S.K., Nabil K.A. 2004. Response of croton grown in a zeolite-containing substrate to different concentrations of fertilizer solution. Journal Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 35(15-16): 2283-2297.
36- Ouda B.A., and Mahadeen A.Y. 2008. Effect of fertilizers on growth, yield, yield components, quality and certain nutrient contents in broccoli (Brassica oleracea). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 10: 627–32.
37- Olsen S.R., Cole C.V., Watenabe F.S., and Dean L.A. 1954. Estimation of available phosphorous in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate, U.S. Department of Agriculture Cris, 939. USA.
38- Ortiz O., and Alkaniz J.M. 2006. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Dactylis glomerata L. growing in a calcareous soil amended with sewage sludge. Journal of Bioresource Technology, 97: 545-552.
39- Page A.L. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Agronomy Series No 9. 2nded. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI.
40- Parsons D., Ramirez-Aviles L., Cherney J.H., Ketterings Q.M., Blake R.W., and Nicholson C.F. 2009. Managing maize production in shifting cultivation milpa systems in Yucatan, through Weed control and manure application. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment,133: 123-134.
41- Pirela J.J., Westfall D.G., and Barbarick K.A. 1982. Use of clinoptilolite in combination with nitrogen fertilization to increase plant growth. Zeo Agriculture. Science Paper Number, 2768: 115-124.
42- Rehakova M., Cuvanova S., Dzivak M., Rimar J., Gavalova Z. 2004. Agricultural and agrochemical uses of natural zeolite of the clinoptilolite type. Current Opinion in Solid State and Materials Science, 8:397– 404.
43- Saha S., Appireddy G.K., Kundu S., and Gupta H.S. 2007. Comparative efficiency of three organic manures at varying rates of its application to baby corn. Agronomy and Soil science, 53:507-517.
44- Samartzidis C., Awada T., Maloupa E., Radoglou K., and Constantinidou H. I. A. 2005. Rose productivity and physiological responses to different substrates for soil-less culture. Horticultural Science. 106: 203-212.
45- Samawat S., Pazaki A., Ladan Moghaddam M., Samawat S. 2008. Applied principles of Organic Materials in Agriculture. Islamic Azad University of Garmsar Branch.
46- Shirani H., Hajabasi M.A., Afyuni M., and Hemmat A. 2002. Effect of farmyard manure and tillage systems on soil physical properties and corn yield in centeral Iran. Soil & Tillage Res, 68:101-108. (in Persian with English abstract)
47- Tsadilas C.D., Voulgarakis N., and Theophilous M. 1993. Natural Agriculture research foundation. Institute of soil classification and maooing 41335 Larissa Greece.
48- Walkley A., and Black I. 1934. An examination of the Degtjareff method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the chromic acid titration method. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 37: 29-38.
49- Zamil S.S., Quadir F.Q., Chowdhury M.A.H., Al Wahid A. 2004. Effects of different animal manure on yield quality and nutrient uptake by Mustard (CV. Agrani). BRAC University Journal, 1(2):59-66.