عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Creating a uniform and adequate moisture in the root zone is one of the most challenging issues in irrigated lands. Use of irrigation systems with high water efficiency, such as sub-surface drip irrigation is recommended as a solution to reduce water losses. Information on soil moisture variation is an important factor for managing and designing a subsurface drip irrigation system. This study was conducted to evaluate the soil moisture variation for different irrigation regimes in a pistachio orchards equipped by a subsurface drip irrigation system (SDI).
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in a two-hectare of 10 years old pistachio orchard located in Semnan province, Iran ( located at 35°28ˊ N, 53°12ˊE and elevation of 1160 m above sea level) during the 2012-2013 growing season. The climate of the studied area is hot desert having an average annual precipitation of approximately 110 mm. Daily meteorological data such as the temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, rainfall, and solar radiation were collected from a meteorology station in farm. The soil was sandy loam textured with average field capacity and permanent wilting point of 12.23 and 5.01%, respectively. Subsurface drip irrigation system was equipped by EuroDrip Company emitters (PC2), inline, to a distance of 80 cm and with a discharge of 26.2 Lit/ hr installed at a depth of 40 cm. In this study, a factorial experiment in split plot design was used with three replications. Three irrigation treatments i.e. control (I1), Irrigation based on irrigation requirement (I2) and I2 plus leaching requirement (I3), and changes in the moisture front were investigated by weight sampling between two drip lines, between the trees rows, on the drip line and out of the drip line of each row, before and after irrigation and in development, middle and late season.
Results and Discussion: For the evaluated irrigation systems, increased levels of irrigation regime resulted in increased moisture content in the root zone. The higher average soil moisture (16.6 %) was measured after irrigation under I3. The I1 irrigation regime did not significantly change the soil moisture content in upper part of emitters before and after irrigation event. Average soil moisture content at different depths showed that the soil moisture content in 75 soil depth was significantly higher than that in 25 and 50 cm soil depth, which can be attributed to higher root water uptake by root in 0-50 cm soil depth. Bilateral impact of irrigation regimes and soil depth showed higher soil moisture content (19.3%) under I3 and 75 cm soil depth which may lead to deep percolation. Bilateral impact of irrigation regimes, soil depth, and time before and after irrigation event also resulted in higher soil moisture content (22.5 %) in 75 cm soil depth after irrigation under I3. The lowest soil water content (10.5 %) was measured in 25 soil depth before irrigation under I1.
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that I2 and I3 irrigation regimes did not show water shortage during growth season (before and after irrigation), but the I1 irrigation regime caused water scarcity. Therefore, the formation of continuous moisture profiles with low moisture in I1 irrigation regime was caused as a result of low irrigation during this period. Accumulation of moisture at depth of 50-75 cm from the soil surface, even under low irrigation conditions I1 irrigation regime, implies that irrigation time is not suitable for irrigation regimes. In general, in order to improve the irrigation management, it is necessary to reduce the irrigation intervals and have a more appropriate distribution of moisture in the soil profile.