درک پیوند آب-غذا-انرژی و مدیریت برای بهره‌وری از منابع آب موجود

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه یزد

2 آیت الله العظمی بروجردی

چکیده

بررسی­ها بر روی پیوند آب، غذا و انرژی4 یک مبنای مشترک برای پژوهشگران، ذینفعان و دولت جهت درک و مدیریت، امنیت و استفاده از روابط WEF فراهم می­کند. نمونه رابطه WEF روابط ویژه­ای را برای تحقیقات بین رشته­ای که مدیریت یکپارچه منابع آب است مهیا می­کند. هدف از این پژوهش بهره­وری مناسب از منابع آب موجود با استفاده از رویکرد آب، غذا و انرژی و با توجه به تغییرات آب­و­هوایی آتی در شهر بروجرد است. در این مطالعه از خروجی مدل HADGEM2 تحت دو سناریوی انتشار RCP2.6 و RCP8.5 مربوط به پنجمین گزارش ارزیابی هیئت بین­الدول تغییر اقلیم استفاده شد. ریزمقیاس نمایی با استفاده از مدل LARS-WG انجام شد. شهر بروجرد با نرم­افزار GIS مدل شد و رویکرد آب، غذا و انرژی برای نهایت بهره­مندی از منابع آب مورد استفاده قرار گرفت. خروجی مدل HADGEM2 تحت دو سناریویRCP2.6  و RCP8.5 نشان داد که در دوره آتی دما بین 5/1 تا 3 درجه سانتی­گراد و بارش بین 20 تا 40 میلی­متر تغییر را تجربه خواهند کرد. نتایج نشان داد حجم بارش به دست آمده از بارش 45/612612 متر مکعب در سال می‌باشد و چرخه فاضلاب 12750000 متر مکعب در سال می­باشد. بنابراین بعد از تصفیه و بازچرخانی دوباره­ی آب می‌تواند 74/60 درصد تقاضای فعلی آب شهر بروجرد را تأمین کند. می­توان از این منابع آب برای کشاورزی شهری در و یا آبیاری درختان و فضای سبز و از فاضلاب برای تولید انرژی الکتریکی در شهر استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Understanding Water-Food-Energy Nexus and their Management for the Utilization of the Existing Water Resources

نویسندگان [English]

  • M.R. Goodarzi 1
  • R. Piryaei 2
  • M.R. Moosavi 2
1 Yazd University
2 Brojerdi University
چکیده [English]

 
Introduction: Due to climate change that is happening, the security of water and food in Iran has caused many worries, which include small towns like Boroujerd. A comprehensive assessment is necessary as well as the productivity of water resources, because it can provide information for government agencies and the public to develop appropriate patterns. The aim of this study is the use and productivity of water resources in Borujerd city, the aim of this study to utilize appropriately the existing water resources in the city of Boroujerd and it is based on recycling and reusing water resources and reduced harvesting of ground water. So the potential of water saving and return to the cycle has been evaluated, and the results can be used as a potential solution for water shortage in Boroujerd in the future.
Materials and Methods: Water, energy, and food security globally are achieved through a communication approach, an approach that integrates governance and management into all over sectors and scales. A communication approach can support the transition to a green economy which aims instead, among other things, the use of resources and policy coherence. Given the increasing communication between sectors in space and time, reducing economic, social and adverse environmental concerns can increase overall resource efficiency, more benefits and provide human rights for water and food. Therefore in a relationship-based approach, common policy and decision making an approach which reduces the composition and creates collaboration among sectors is in need.
Currently, the most reliable tool to produce climate scenarios is the paired 3D Atmosphere-Oceans General Circulation Models which called AOGCM in this paper. AOGCM is based on the physical relationships that are presented by mathematical relations. In formulating its AR5 synthesis report, the IPCC has made use of new RCP scenarios of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The IPCC society has used new scenarios as trajectory representatives of various concentrations of greenhouse gases. New scenarios have four key trajectories called RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5 that are based on their radiative stimulus in 2100 and different specifications of the technology level, social and economic situation and future policies.
LARS-WG is a random weather generator that can be used to simulate atmospheric data at a station under current and future climate conditions. The first version developed in Budapest in 1990 as part of an agricultural risk assessment in Hungary, then reviewed and moderated by Semenov in 1998. This model produces a daily time series of minimum and maximum temperature, rainfall and solar radiation.
Results and Discussion: Concerning precipitation variations, it can be concluded that changes in winter months from January to March in RCP2.6 will decrease by 20%. Rainfall variations in the spring are the same and have equal status with the base time. In summer, two scenarios experience a 40% reduction, in fall, RCP2.6 shows a 20% increase in rainfall and the scenario RCP8.5 shows about 10% precipitation reduction. The two scenarios show at least 1.5 degrees Celsius increase and the highest increases are in fall, and in October, a rise of 2.5 degrees has seen. Maximum temperature changes which indicate the temperature increase to 2 degrees at least in both scenarios. In scenario RCP8.5, in winter and fall, the maximum temperature is increased to 2.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Boroujerdʼs water and sewage company harvests 22 hm3 (MCM) water annually for its population of 240,654 people. If the necessary measures are taken for gray and black water purification, Boroujerdʼs daily city sewage that is 35416/6 m3 daily, can return to the water cycle. The city's total wastewater is 12,750,000 m3 per year and it is possible to prevent underground water harvesting with purification. Rainfall is another important resource never utilized in Boroujerd. The gable roof and those with more than 15 degrees gradient can be used to collect the rainwater in the high rainfall season. The total roofs are 136.13 ha and according to the average rainfall 0/454m, it can be the maximum use of this resource. The annual volume of precipitation for this city is 612612/45m3 which is significant. Supposedly, it could provide 3.6% of fresh water. Also, if the volume of sewage is considered for purification, the amount of available water source reaches 13362612/45m3 which can meet 60/74% of current water demand.
Conclusion: Rainwater is not used as a natural resource in Borujerd city and flows into seasonal rivers as runoff. It can be said that harvesting rainwater is an opportunity to reduce water shortage in the future. Rainwater system transferred through the water pipelines and sewage system. It is possible to store rainfall and water remained after snow melts for dry seasons and its surplus can be used to supply. Also due to climate changes and agriculture in Borujerd city, a plan should be provided to reduce the use of water in the summer which is expected to be implemented shortly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • HADGEM2 Model
  • Climate changes
  • Water Resources
  • Water-Energy-Food Nexus
1- AGECC (UN Secretary General’s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change). 2010. Summary Report and Recommendations. p 13.
2- Bhaduri A., Ringler C., Dombrowski I., Mohtar R., and Scheumann W. 2015. Sustainability in the water–energy–food nexus. Water Int 40: 723–732.
3- Biswas A.K. 2004. Integrated Water Resources Management: A Reassessment. Water Int 29: 248–256.
4- Bizikova L., Roy D., Swanson D., Venema M., HenryDavid M., and McCandless M. 2013. The Water-energy-food Security Nexus: Towards a Practical Planning and Decision-support Framework For Landscape Investment and Risk Management. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Canada.
5- Cai X.M., and Rosegrant M.W. 2004. Irrigation technology choices under hydrologic uncertainty: A case study from Maipo River Basin, Chile. Water Resour Res. 40, W04103, doi: 10.1029/2003WR00 2810.
6- Chapagain A.K., and Tickner D. 2012. Water Footprint: Help or Hindrance? Water Alternatives 5: 563–581.
7- Collins M., Knutti R., Arblaster J., Dufresne J.-L., Fichefet T., Friedlingstein P., Gao X., Gutowski W.J., Johns T., Krinner G., Shongwe M., Tebaldi C., Weaver A.J., and Wehner M. 2013. Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitmens and Irreversbility. In : Climate Change 2013: The physical Basis.Contribution of Working Group I to the Finish Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stoker T.F., Qin G.-K., Plattner M., Tignor S.K. Allen J. Boschung A. Nauels Y. Xia V. Bex and Midgley P.M. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York. USA. PP. 1045-1047.
8- FAO. 1996. Rome Declaration on World Food Security and World Food Summit Plan of Action. World Food Summit 13–17 November.
9- Global Water Partnership. 2000. Integrated Water Resources Management, Global Water Partnership. Stockholm.
10- Hamlet A.F., and Leltenmlier D.P. 2007. Effects of 20th Century warning and climate variability on flood risk in the western U. S., Water Resources Research 43: 466427.
11- Hering J.G., and Ingold K.M. 2012. Water Resources Management: What Should Be Integrated? Science 336: 1234–1235.
12- Hoekstra A.Y., Chapagain A.K., Aldaya M.M., and Mekonnen M.M. 2011. The water footprint assessment manual: setting the global standard. (London and Washington, DC, Earthscan 24: 138–142.
13- Hoff H. 2011. Understanding the Nexus. In: Background Paper for the Bonn 2011 Conference: The Water, Energy and Food Security Nexus, Stockholm Environment Institute.
14- Hubacek K., Guan D.B., Barrett J., and Wiedmann T. 2009. Environmental implications of urbanization and lifestyle change in China: Ecological and Water Footprints. J Clean Prod. 17: 1241–1248.
15- Krysanova V., Dickens C., Timmerman J., Varela-Orlega C., Schluter M., Roest K., Hantyens P., Jaspers F., Buiteveld H., Moreno E., de Pedraza Carrera J., slamova R., Martinkova M., Blanco I., Uteve P., Pringle K., Pahl-Wash C., and Kabat P. 2010. Cross comparison of climate change adaptation strategies across large river basins in Europe, Africa and Asia, Water Resources Management 24: 4121-4160.
16- Kuiper D., Zarate E., and Aldaya M. 2010. Water Footprint and Corporate Water Accounting for Resource Efficiency. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi.
17- Lane M.E., Kirshen P.H., and Vogel R.M. 1999. Indicators of impact of global climate change on U.S. water resources. ASCE, J. Water Resour. Planning and Manag 125(4): 194-204.
18- Leck H., Conway D., Bradshaw M., and Rees J. 2015. Tracing the Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Description, Theory and Practice. Geogr. Compass 9: 445–460.
19- Lienhard J.H., Thiel G.P., Warsinger D.M., and Banchik L.D. 2016. "Low Carbon Desalination: Status and Research, Development, and Demonstration Needs". Report of a Workshop Conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Association with the Global Clean Water Desalination Alliance, MIT Abdul Latif Jameel World Water and Food Security Lab, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
20- Maass A., Hufschmidt M.M., Dorfman R., Thomas H.A., Marglin S.A.,and Fair G.M. 1962. Design of Water-Resource Systems: New Techniques For Relating Economic Objectives, Engineering Analysis, and Governmental Planning. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
21- Merrey D.J. 2008. Is normative integrated water resources management implementable? Charting a practical course with lessons from Southern Africa. Phys. Chem. Earth 33: 899–905.
22- Racsko P., Szeidl L., and Semenov M. 1991. A serial approach to local stochastic weather models. Ecological Modelling 57(1): 27-41.
23- Ringler C., Bhaduri A., and Lawford R. 2013. The nexus across water, energy, land and food (WELF): potential for improved resource use efficiency? Curr. Opin. Environ. Sustain 5: 617–624.
24- Semenov M.A., Brooks R.J., Barrow E.M., and Richardson C.W. 1998. Comparison of the WGEN and LARS-WG stoch - astic weather generators in diverse climates. Clim Res10: 95–107.
25- Semenov M.A., and Brooks R.J. 1999. Spatial interpolation of the LARS-WG weather generator in Great Britain. Climate Research 11: 137-148.
26- Semenov M.A., Barrow E.M., and LARS-WG A. 2002. A Stochastic Weather Generation for Use in Climate Impact Studies LARS-WG 35: 392-444.
27- Smol J.P. 2012. Climate Change: A planet in flux. Nature 483: 12–15.
28- Statistical Yearbook of Lorestan Province. 2002. Lorestan Housing and Urban Development Department (In Persian)
29- Sun S.K., Wu P.T., Wang Y.B., and Zhao X.N. 2013. The virtual water content of major grain crops and virtual water flows between regions in China. Journal of Science Food and Agriculture 93: 1427–1437.
30- UNDP. 2014. Human Development Report. http://www.undp.org.
31- United Nations. 2012. Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. United Nations. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
32- Vince G. 2010. Getting More Drops to the Crops. Science 327: 800–800.
33- Weitz N., Nilsson M., and Davis M. 2014. A nexus approach to the post-2015 agenda: formulating integrated water, energy, and food SDGs. SAIS Rev. Johns Hopkins University Press. 34: 37–50.
34- Wicaksono S.A., Russell J.M., Holbourn A., and Kuhnt W. 2017. Hydrological and vegetation shifts in the Wallacean region of central Indonesia since the Last Glacial Maximum, Quat. Sci. Rev. 157:152-163.
35- Wilby R.L., and Harris I. 2006. A framework for assessing unceruinties in climate change impacts: low-flow scenarios for the river Thames, Water Resources Research. vol. 42. wo2419.
36- Xu D., Liu Y., Li Y.N., and Gong S.H. 2010. Overview on concepts and strategies studies of modern irrigation water management development. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 39:1204–1212. (In Chinese)
37- Zhang F., Cui Z., Fan M., Zhang W., Chen X., and Jiang R. 2011. Integrated soil-crop system management: reducing environmental risk while increasing crop productivity and improving nutrient use efficiency in China. J. Environ. Qual. 40: 1051–1057.
38- Zhang G.P., Hoekstra A.Y., and Mathews R.E. 2013. Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for better water governance and sustainable development. Water Resour & Ind 1-2: 1–6.
39- Zhao X., Chen B., and Yang Z.F. 2009. National water footprint in an input–output framework—A case study of China 2002. Ecological Model 220: 245–253.
40- Zhao C.F., and Chen B. 2014. Driving force analysis of the agricultural water footprint in China based on the LMDI method. Environmental Science and Technology 48: 12723–12731.
41- Zoumides C., Bruggeman A., Hadjikakou M., and Zachariadis T. 2014. Policy-relevant indicators for semi-arid nations: The water footprint of crop production and supply utilization of Cyprus. Ecol Indic. 43: 205–214.