تأثیر فسفر بر عملکرد دانه و شاخص‌های کارآیی فسفر در ارقام زمستانه کلزا در منطقه کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقاتو آموزش کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه

2 موسسه تحقیقات خاک وآب

چکیده

شناسایی رقم­هایی از گیاهان که به‌صورت کارآمدی بتوانند فسفر خاک را جذب و مصرف کنند، می­تواند باعث کاهش هزینه مالی و زیست‌محیطی کاربرد کودهای فسفره گردد. لذا به­منظور مقایسه ارقام زمستانه کلزا ازنظر جذب، مصرف و کارآیی فسفر، این آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با دو عامل الف) فسفر (P) در پنج سطح صفر، 80، 160، 240 و 300 کیلوگرم سوپرفسفات تریپل بر هکتار و ب) ارقام کلزا شامل اکاپی، اپرا و زرفام، در سه تکرار و در مزرعه ایستگاه تحقیقاتی ماهیدشت کرمانشاه طی دو سال زراعی اجرا گردید. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات برهم­کنش مقدار فسفر و ارقام کلزا بر غلظت فسفر برگ، عملکرد دانه، کاه، غلظت و جذب فسفر دانه و شاخص­های کارآیی بر اساس وزن دانه و جذب فسفر دانه، معنی­دار بود. با توجه به مقدار فسفر اولیه خاک (2/7 میلی‌گرم فسفر بر کیلوگرم خاک) در میانگین دو سال، بیش­ترین عملکرد دانه و کاه به ترتیب 3203 و 4613 کیلوگرم بر هکتار از مصرف 300 کیلوگرم کود سوپرفسفات تریپل بر هکتار و با رقم اکاپی به‌دست آمد. در شرایط کمبود فسفر، تفاوت معنی­دار بین ارقام ازلحاظ عملکرد دانه، مشاهده نشد. تفاوت معنی­داری بین سه رقم ازنظر شاخص­های کارآیی فسفر، مشاهده شد. رقم اپرا کارا در جذب (84/0) و رقم زرفام کارا در استفاده از فسفر (152 کیلوگرم دانه در هر کیلوگرم کود)، ولی رقم اپرا فسفر کارا بود. با توجه به روابط همبستگی با شاخص تنش کمبود فسفر به نظر می­رسد، فسفر کارآیی ارقام، وابسته به کارآیی در جذب فسفر باشد (** 477/0= R2) تا کارآیی در مصرف فسفر (ns 076/0= R2). کارآیی جذب می­تواند به‌عنوان شاخص کلیدی برای تفکیک ارقام فسفر کارای کلزا در شرایط مزرعه استفاده گردد. کاربرد ارقام اپرا و اکاپی با 80 کیلوگرم کود در شرایط مشابه این آزمایش، قابل توصیه خواهد بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Phosphorus on Grain Yield and Phosphorus Efficiency Indices in Canola Cultivars in Kermanshah Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • J. Ghaderi 1
  • F. Nourgholipour 2
1 Kermanshah
2 Karaj
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Due to the compatibility of canola with different conditions, economic value, its price and importance of rotation with cereals, it has the highest level of cultivation area among the oilseed crops in Iran. Phosphorus (P) deficiency is a widespread macronutrient deficiency and is one of the major limiting constraints for canola production. Despite its importance, it limits crop yield on more than 40% of the world’s arable land and 70.2% in Iran. Moreover, global P reserves are being depleted at a higher rate and according to some estimates, there will be no economic P reserve by the year 2050. This is a potential threat to sustainable canola production. Most of the P applied in the form of fertilizers may be adsorbed by the soil, and would not be available for plants lacking specific adaptations. It is widely accepted that the most realistic solution to the problem of P deficiency is to develop new plant cultivars that adapt to P-deficient soils. Phosphorus efficiency is a term that generally describes the ability of crop species/genotypes to give higher yield under P-limiting condition. Plant species as well as genotypes within the same species may differ in P efficiency. This study was conducted to determine the effect of phosphorus fertilization on the grain yield and phosphorus efficiency indices in different canola cultivars.
Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out at the research farm of the Mahidasht Agricultural Research Station located 20 km away from Kermanshah (with elevation of 1265 m). This experiment was conducted as factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications with 2 factors including canola varieties and different amounts of phosphorus fertilizer. The first factor consisted of five triple superphosphate (TSP) levels (0, 16, 32, 49, and 61 kg per ha) and the second factor consisted of three cultivars (Okapi, Opera and Zarfam). This research was conducted on soil where the amount of available phosphorus was lower than the critical level required for canola (15 mg kg-1). Prior to sowing, all phosphorus treatments with 30 kg ha-1 of zinc sulfate fertilizer as well as one-third of nitrogen fertilizer (100 kg ha-1 urea) were applied during planting and mixed thoroughly with the soil. The remaining urea fertilizer was applied at two stages of stem growth (120 kg ha-1) and early flowering (100 kg ha-1). Each experimental plot had an area of 12 m2. Irrigation method was sprinkler. Grain and straw yield were determined after the harvest and seed samples (harvesting stage) were taken and rinsed with distilled water, oven dried at 70 °C, ground, digested and analyzed for determining the P concentration. Analysis of variance was performed using SAS software and mean comparisons performed by Duncan’s multiple range tests (P ≤ 0.05).
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the interaction effects of phosphorus fertilizer rate and canola cultivars on leaf P concentration, grain and straw yield, grain P concentration and uptake, and P efficiency indices were significant. In average of the two-years, the highest grain and straw yields (3203 and 4613 kg ha-1, respectively) were obtained from 300 kg ha-1 P fertilizer rate for Okapi cultivar. Under the P deficiency condition, no significant difference was observed between cultivars in terms of grain yield. Significant differences were observed among three cultivars in terms of P efficiency. Opera cultivar was efficient in absorption (0.84) and Zarfam cultivar was efficient in phosphorus utilization (152 kg grain / kg fertilizer), but Opera was phosphorus efficient. With application of phosphorus fertilizer, phosphorus use efficiency decreased and the highest amount was found for the control treatment which produced 169 kg seeds per kg of phosphorus. The lowest amount of this characteristic was obtained for 300 kg phosphorus fertilizer treatment. Considering the correlation between phosphorus stress factor and P uptake efficiency, it seems that P efficiency was dependent on P uptake (R2 = 0.477 **) rather than P utilization (R2 = 0.076 ns).
Conclusion: Phosphorus uptake efficiency can be used for selecting P efficient cultivars of canola under farm condition. Application of Opera and Okapi cultivars with 80 kg of fertilizer per ha in similar conditions of this experiment would be advisable and excess phosphorus fertilizer application would not significantly increase grain yield. Selecting suitable varieties could decrease application of chemical fertilizers in the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Canola
  • Efficiency
  • Phosphorus concentration
  • Phosphorus utilization
  • Uptake
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