اثرات اصلاح کاربری اراضی بر رفتار هیدرولوژیکی حوزه آبخیز چهل‌چای استان گلستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه مرتع و آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و محیط زیست، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

رشد سریع جمعیت و نیازهای فزاینده بشر به منابع مختلف سبب استفاده بیش از حد از اراضی، تغییر کاربری­ها و تبدیل آن‌ها به اراضی کم بازده، باعث تغییر در وضعیت هیدرولوژی حوضه­های آبخیز شده است. در دهه­های اخیر استفاده از اراضی بر حسب قابلیت یکی از ره‌یافت­های مناسب جهت تعدیل و بهبود عملکرد هیدرولوژیکی آبخیزها شناخته شده است اما اثرات هیدرلوژیکی این تغییرات در حوضه­های مختلف با تنوع کاربری و شرایط هنوز به درستی شناخته نشده است. از این رو این پژوهش به دنبال بررسی اثر اصلاح کاربری اراضی بر وضعیت هیدرولوژی حوضه آبخیز چهل­چای در استان گلستان می­باشد. به ‌این منظور از مدل هیدرولوژی J2000 برای شبیه­سازی هیدرولوژی حوضه استفاده شد. در این راستا مدل با استفاده از داده های هیدرومتری ایستگاه خروجی حوضه برای دوره 2002 تا 2014 واسنجی و اعتبار سنجی شد. در مرحله بعد با داده­های اقلیمی دوره زمانی 2014-1992 اثر اصلاح کاربری حوضه در اجزاء هیدرولوژی حوضه مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد استفاده از اراضی متناسب با قابلیتشان باعث کاهش رواناب سطحی به میزان 99/12٪، رواناب زیر سطحی به میزان 25/5٪ و افزایش 75/1 درصدی نفوذ آب در خاک گردیده است. با کاهش رواناب سطحی و افزایش آب­های زیرزمینی، میزان تخلیه حوضه در خروجی 22/4٪ کاهش یافته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Land Use Restoration Impacts on Hydrological Behavior of Chehel Chay Watershed of Golestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza chamani
  • mahmood azari
Department of Range and Watershed Management, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Over the past decades, millions of hectares of high-quality lands have been converted to other uses and low-yielding agriculture, which have had some unpleasant consequences for watershed hydrology. Analysis of hydrological responses of different basins to land use change has shown that correct land use balances the hydrological status of the basin, so that land use and the type and density of vegetation play an effective role in permeability and runoff reduction by changing humidity, soil organic materials and soil structure. Dimensions of hydrological effects of land capability in Chehel chay watershed in Golestan province, which is affected by land use change and deforestation, are more important. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate different scenarios of land use change and its effect on the hydrological status of the basin.
Materials and Methods: The J2000 hydrology model was used to simulate the hydrology of the basin. To better investigate the spatial and temporal variations of the hydrological parameters of the study area, it is divided into 2013 hydrological response units. After calibrating the J2000 hydrological model, the model was fed by rainfall data (1992-2014) and land use potential.
Results and Discussion: To evaluate the performance of the model, the dataset obtained in the time period of 2002-2014 was used for selection simulation and the first nine-years was considered as the calibration period and the remaining was considered as the validation period. The R2 of 0.67 and 0.55, and NAS coefficients of 0.83 and 0.76 were found in the calibration and validation periods, respectively. According to the ranking of Moriasi et al., the model efficiency is "good" and can be used in the present study. Several studies with similar observational data have reported similar results. The results showed that in summer and in May and June, the emptiest space in LPS soil pores is 3.07 and 3.21%, respectively. Increasing the consumption of MPS soil pores has also increased, and from 0.5 to 1.69% of the empty pores in the average soil pores has increased in these months. Therefore, increasing water storage in LPS pores in the months of May to June, surface runoff (RD1) decreased within the range of 6.28-26.38%, and the range of subsurface runoff (RD2) reduction was 4.41-8.41%. The amount of water percolation into groundwater aquifers was positive, and the highest infiltration into groundwater ranged from 0.83 to 1.72% for fast section groundwater (RG1), and from 0.48 to 0.52% for groundwater. Large pores do not hold much water, and water is transferred vertically to medium pores under gravity. When medium pores are saturated with water, water does not penetrate into these pores and remains in large pores and moves horizontally, increasing the subsurface flow. The results indicate that deforestation in order to expand agricultural lands and inappropriate use of the lands are the most important problems. Moreover,  population growth has exacerbated the condition, necessitating proper land use management and planning. The scholars have also stated that proper land use has important effects on the water balance of watersheds.
Conclusion: In this study, the hydrological effects of land uses on the hydrological situation in Chehel chay watershed have been evaluated by simulations of the hydrological model. Our results reveal that the unplanned land use changes, land clearing, and expansion of agricultural lands have intensified the hydrological situation of the basin. The peak discharge of surface and subsurface runoff in hydrological response units decreased and the rate of water infiltration into soil and groundwater increased. Reduction of surface and subsurface runoff has also decreased the discharge in the basin outlet.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chehelchai watershed
  • Land Capability
  • Golestan
  • Hydrological model J2000
  • hydrology
 
1-       Arancibia J.L.P. 2013. Impacts of Land Use Change on Dry Season Flows Across the Tropics Forests as ‘Sponges’ and ‘Pumps ’. University of London PhD thesis. 262.
2-       Arefi asl A., Najafi nejad A., Kiyani F., and Mahini andalradul S. 2012. Runoff and sediment simulation using SWAT model in Chehelchai watershed of Golestan province. Rangeland and Watershed Management 66(3): 433-446. (In Persian with English abstract)‎
3-       Dickinson R.E. 1984. Modelling evapotranspiration for three-dimensional global climate models. In: Hansen, J.E., Takahasi, T. (Eds.), Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity Geophysical Monograph Series 29, Washington.
4-       Felix N., Simon S., and Markus W. 2002. A process based assessment of the potential to reduce flood runoff by land use change. Hydrology 267:74–79.
5-       Fisher C., Kralisch S., Krause P., Fink M., and Flügel W.A. 2009. Calibration of hydrological model parameters with the JAMS framework. 18th World IMACS /MODSIM Congress, Cairns, Australia 13: 866-872.
6-       Fullen M. 1998. Effects of grass ley set-aside on runoff, erosion and organic matter levels in sandy soils in East Shropshire, UK. Soil and Tillage Research 46: 41–49.
7-       General Department of Natural Resources and Watershed Management of Golestan Province, Watershed Management Unit, Watershed Management Studies. 2013,1-44. (In Persian with English abstract)
8-       Guzha A.C., Rufinoa M.C., Okothb S., Jacobsa S., and Nóbregae R.L.B. 2018. Impacts of land use and land cover change on surface runoff, discharge and low flows: Evidence from East Africa. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 15: 49–67.
9-       Heidarloua H.B., Shafieia A.B., Erfanianb M., Tayyebic A., and Alijanpoura A. 2019. Effects of preservation policy on land use changes in Iranian Northern Zagros forests. Land Use Policy 81: 76-90.
10-   Krause P. 2002. Quantifying the impact of land use changes on the water balance of large catchments using the J2000 model. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 27: 663–673.
11-   Lin B., Chen X., Yao H., Chen Y., Liu M., and Gao L. 2015. Analyses of landuse change impacts on catchment runoff using different time indicators based on SWAT model. Ecological Indicators 58: 55–63.
12-   Liu J., Zhang C., Kou L., and Zhou Q. 2017. Effects of Climate and Land Use Changes on Water Resources in the Taoer River. Advances in Meteorology, 13 pages.
13-   Miller J.D., and Hutchins M. 2017. The impacts of urbanization and climate change on urban flooding and urban water quality: a review of the evidence concerning the United Kingdom. Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies 12: 345–362.
14-   Minaei M., and Kainz W. 2018. Land Cover Change Dynamics Based on Intensity Analysis in Gorganrood Watershed, Iran. Journal of Agrculture Science Technology 20: 965-978.
15-   Moriasi D.N., Arnold J.G., Van Liew M.W., Bingner R.L., Harmel R.D., and Veith T.L. 2007. Model evaluation guidelines for systematic quantification of accuracy in watershed simulations. Trans. ASABE 50: 885–900.
16-   Ott B., and Stefan U. 2004, quantifying the impact of land use changes at the event and seasonal time scale using a process-oriented catchment model. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 8: 62–78.
17-   Palamuleni L.G., Ndomba P.M., and Annegarn H.J. 2011. Evaluating land cover change and its impact on hydrological regime in Upper Shire river catchment, Malawi. Journal of Regional Environmental Change 11(4): 845-855.
18-   Paul M. 2016. Impacts of Land Use and Climate Changes on Hydrological Processes in South Dakota Watersheds. Thses and Dissertations. Paper 1018.
19-   Sajikumar N., and Remya R.S. 2014. Impact of land cover and land use change on runoff characteristics. Journal Environment Management 161: 460-468.
20-   Salmani H., Mohsenisaravi M., Rohuni H., and Salajeghah A. 2012.  Evaluation of land use change and its effect on hydrological regime in Ghazaghli watershed of Golestan province. Journal of Watershed Management 3: 43-60. (In Persian with English abstract)
21-   Shrestha M.K., Recknagel F., Frizenschaf J., and Meyer W. 2017. Future climate and land uses effects on flow and nutrient loads of a Mediterranean catchment in South Australia. Science of the Total Environment 15: 186–193.
22-   Sohrabi A., and Chegini M.A. 2012. Evaluation of land suitability and radiation-thermal production potential of sugar beet by FAO method in the fields of Lorestan, Iran. Journal of Sugar Beet 27: 38-44.
23-   Twine TE., Kucharik CJ., and Foley JA. 2004. Effects of land cover change on the energy and water balance of the Mississippi River basin. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 640–655.
24-   Vahabzadeh GH., Navidifar Y., Habibnejad roushan M., and Abghari H. 2014. Investigating the Impact of Land Use Change on Daily River Flow Using HEC-HMS Model (Case Study: Ajrlu Watershed, West Azerbaijan Province). Journal of Soil and Water Science 24: 227-236. (In Persian with English abstract)
25-   Wagner P.D., Murty Bhallamudi S., Narasimhan B., Kantakumar L.N., Sudheer K.P., Kumar SH., Schneider K., and Fiener P. 2016. Dynamic integration of land use changes in a hydrologic assessment of a rapidly developing Indian catchment. Science of the Total Environment 539: 153–164.
26-   Watson A., Kralisch S., Künne A., Fink M., and Miller J. 2020. Impact of precipitation data density and duration on simulated flow dynamics and implications for ecohydrological modelling in semi-arid catchments in Southern Africa, Journal of Hydrology 1: 1-44
27-   Wijesekara G.N., Gupta A., Valeo C., Hasbani J.-G., Qiao Y., Delaney P., and Marceau D.J. 2012. Assessing the impact of future land-use changes on hydrological processes in the Elbow River watershed in southern Alberta, Canada. Journal of Hydrology 412:413, 220–232.
28-   Yao H.X., Hashino M., Xia J., and Chen X.H. 2009. Runoff reduction by forest growth in Hiji River basin, Japan. Hydrology Science Journal 54: 556–570.
29-   Zehe E., and Sivapalan M. 2009. Threshold behavior in hydrological systems as (human) geo-ecosystems: manifestations, controls, implications. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 13: 1273–1297.
30-   Zhang X., CAO W., GUO Q., and WU S. 2010. Effects of landuse change on surface runoff and sediment yield at different watershed scales on the Loess Plateau.ELSEVIER 25: 283-293.
31-   Zhang Y., Guan D., Jin C., Wang A., Wu J., and Yuan F. 2011. Analysis of impacts of climate variability and human activity on stream flow for a river basin in Northeast China. Journal of Hydrology 410:239–247.
32-   Zhang Y., Guan D., Jin C., Wang A., Wu J., and Yuan F. 2011. Analysis of impacts of ‎climate variability and human activity on stream flow for a river basin in Northeast China. ‎Journal of Hydrology 410: 239–247. ‎
33-   Zhu Ch., and Li Y. 2014. Long-term hydrological impacts of land use/land cover change from 1984 to 2010 in the Little River Watershed, Tennessee. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 2: 11-22.