عنوان مقاله [English]
Development of reservoirs helps to meet food and energy needs by supplying water for agriculture and hydropower plants. Efficient management of water resources is important and vital to overcome the problems of water leakage and meet agricultural, industrial and drinking needs. Each of these requirements creates limitations in the way the reservoir is operated, which requires accurate information on the changes in the reservoir storage and other influential components during the operation period. In order to manage and plan water resources at country scale, using reservoir simulation models as a suitable tool in simulating processes related to dams, such as the operation of water reservoirs, will be very effective. Reservoir simulation models such as the HEC-ResSim model provide the opportunity to simulate the natural and hydrological processes related to the water resources system and the relationships between the supply and demand sectors by implementing a schematic structure of a real reservoir. Two scenarios of water savings of 20 and 30 percent were used in the current investigation. Additionally, using this method, the objectives of water resource management can be assessed.
Materials and Methods
In the present study, the use of the Latian reservoir in real conditions was simulated using the HEC-ResSim model. The simulation was carried out according to the river's inflow from 1968 to 2018, downstream water needs, energy production capacity by turbines, physical characteristics and reservoir building. The implementation of the HEC-ResSim model is summarized in three steps. The Watershed Setup module is used to introduce the general outline of the watershed. In this module, the shape and geographical location of the basin and related elements such as rivers, reservoirs, hydrometric stations and other projects in it should be specified. The Reservoir Network module is used to introduce the desired reservoir network and to enter the physical characteristics and how to use them. The Simulation module is designed to introduce the simulation period and display the model outputs. In this module, the simulation time and period and the operation pattern should be determined.
Results and Discussion
According to the results obtained from the reservoir simulation model, the average storage capacity of Latian dam for the simulation period was estimated to be 41 million cubic meters, which shows a significant drop of 49% compared to the normal level (83 million cubic meters). Additionally, for the same period, it was estimated that the average discharge was equivalent to 5.4 cubic meters per second and the average inflow to the reservoir of the Latian dam was equal to 5.7 cubic meters per second. This is in contrast to the period's average demand, which for the area downstream of the Latian Dam is 12.1 cubic meters. The findings indicate that the reservoir of the dam frequently, and particularly at the conclusion of the simulation period, is unable to satisfy the needs of the downstream. Additionally, according to the findings of the current study, the Latian dam power plant's (Kalan) average annual hydro-electric energy production was projected to be 68,000 MWh, and the results show that in accordance with the policy of operating the Latian dam in the majority ofthe years, the Kalan power plant is able to supply the electricity required in the study area. According to the results, the average reservoir volume of Latian dam for the entire period in the first and second scenario was estimated to be 49 and 63 million cubic meters, respectively. Also, by applying the first and second water saving scenarios, the Latian dam reservoir will be able to generate 66,000 and 63,000 MWh of energy annually.
In this study, the functioning and operation of the Latian dam reservoir was used by applying the Hec-ResSim reservoir simulation model. After entering data such as the elevation and length of the dam, surface-volume-elevation curve, evaporation from the surface of the reservoir, elevation and uncontrolled outlet coefficient, dam storage areas, rule curve, were simulated by the model. In the present study, the values of inactive volume and conservation volume of Latian Dam were estimated as 28 and 83 million cubic meters, respectively. The average water release of Latian dam for the first and second 25 years of operation was equal to 6.1 and 3.7 cubic meters per second, respectively, which met 50 and 32% of the downstream demand on average. The results indicate that the success rate of Latian dam in supplying drinking, industry and downstream environment for the period of operation is 42%. Also, 16 years out of 50 years of operation, Kalan hydropower plant has fully met 100% of the needs. On average, the large power plant is able to provide 80% of the energy needs of the study area for the entire simulation period.