Synthesis of Phosphorus Compound Based on Graphene Oxide (GO-P) and Investigating its Effect on Phosphorus Availability in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Document Type : Research Article

Authors

1 Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources

2 Golestan University

Abstract

Introduction

Wheat is considered the most important grain and one of the vital food products in the country. It has a special role in the food consumption pattern of humans. After nitrogen, phosphorus is the most important nutrient required by plants and plays an important role in the growth, yield and quality of plants. The efficiency of using phosphorus fertilizers and the availability of this nutrient is considered as a limiting factor for the production of agricultural products in calcareous soils with alkaline reaction of Iran. Since graphene and its oxidized form, with large amounts of active oxygen groups and high specific surface area, have been proposed by many studies as non-toxic and biocompatible materials in the production of compounds with improved efficiency of using nutrient, therefore in order to increasing the efficiency of phosphorus consumption in soil, in this study, phosphorus was loaded on graphene oxide (GO-P). The present study aims to assess the influence of this compound as a source of phosphorus and its mixing with triple superphosphate fertilizer (GO-P-TSP) compared to triple superphosphate soluble fertilizer (TSP) on the amount of water retention of fertilizers in soil and phosphorus concentration in aerial parts of wheat plant.

Methods and Materials

Graphene oxide was prepared based on the modified Hamers method. Then graphene oxide was adjusted to certain pH and iron sulfate as a source of iron ions was added to the graphene oxide suspension with vigorous stirring. The mixture was stirred for one hour and then centrifuged for 30 minutes. After centrifugation, the supernatant was removed and the residue of the compound was dry frozen. In the next step, pH was adjusted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Then a certain weight of potassium dihydrogen phosphate salt (KH2PO4) was added to the above suspension. The mixture was stirred for one hour and centrifuged for 30 minutes. After centrifugation, the supernatant was removed and the remains of the phosphorus composition based on graphene oxide were dry frozen. Loading tests were performed in three replicates. pH, EC, bulk density, total concentration of phosphorus and iron and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (EDS) analysis were measured in the sample of phosphorus composition based on graphene oxide. Then three fertilizer formulations were selected, which include (1) triple superphosphate fertilizer, (2) synthesized phosphorus fertilizer based on graphene oxide, and (3) mixing graphene oxide-phosphorus compound with triple superphosphate fertilizer in a ratio of 50:50% phosphorus.

In order to investigate the effect of three fertilizer formulations on phosphorus availability, soil with low amount of phosphorus was selected and physical and chemical properties of the soil sampel were measured at a depth of 0-30 cm. A greenhouse experiment of wheat planting was conducted as a randomized complete design with 3 replications. The treatments included three fertilizer formulations at three fertilization levels (10, 15, and 20 mg/kg) with 3 replications. The control treatment was performed without phosphorus fertilizer. Plants were harvested 72 days after planting, washed with distilled water and dry with tissue paper. The samples were air-dried and then oven dried at 70˚C to a constant weight in a forced air-driven oven. After harvesting, the weight of fresh and dry matter and phosphorus concentration in the soil and aerial parts of the plant were measured. Statistical data were analysed using SAS software (9.4) and the mean values were compared using LSD tests (at 1, and 5% level).

Results and Discussion

The composition of phosphorus based on graphene oxide (GO-P) in powder form had 35.5% of total P2O5, 31.1% of soluble in water P2O5, 19.6 of total iron and 15.28% of total Potassium. The result of EDS analysis confirmed the loading of phosphorus on graphene oxide. The pH of the phosphorus composition based on graphene oxide was 5.8 approximately 2.5 units higher than triple superphosphate fertilizer. The bulk density of the compound (GO-P) was significantly lower than triple superphosphate fertilizer. The EC of the compound (GO-P) was similar to the EC of the triple superphosphate fertilizer. Soil water retention with synthesized phosphorus fertilizer based on graphene oxide (GO-P) is higher than soil (control) and other compounds added to soil. Experimental results show that the addition of prepared fertilizer formulas (GO-P and GO-P-TSP) increases water retention in the soil for a longer period of time, while in the soil without adding fertilizer and triple superphosphate treatment, respectively, from 10 and 11 days, the absorbed water evaporates completely. Therefore, the combination of soil with GO-P and GO-P-TSP compared to the soil without fertilizer and the combination of soil with triple super phosphate (TSP) fertilizer have better water retention behavior. The greenhouse experiment results of wheat planting showed that all treatments were significant (P<0.01). Among all the treatments and measured levels, the control treatment showed the lowest value. The highest concentration of phosphorus in aerial parts of wheat (0.31 percent) and in soil after harvesting (9.5 mg/kg), fresh weight (10.6 gr per pot), dry weight (2.03 gr per pot aerial wheat plants were related to the treatment of phosphorus compounds based on graphene oxide at the level of 20 mg/kg.

Conclusions

The highest concentration of phosphorus in aerial parts of wheat was related to the treatment of phosphorus compound based on graphene oxide at the level of 20 mg/kg. Therefore, with more research in the future to produce "nutritious plants" in sustainable, efficient and flexible agricultural systems, we can benefit from technologies based on carbon materials.

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Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 02 June 2024
  • Receive Date: 09 March 2024
  • Revise Date: 27 May 2024
  • Accept Date: 02 June 2024
  • First Publish Date: 02 June 2024