برآورد تبخیر تعرق در فضاهای سبز با روش‌های WUCOLS، PF و IPOS (کرج)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم مهندسی آب، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 کارشناسی ارشد در رشته مهندسی سیستم‌های انرژی، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

فضا‌های سبز شهری در افزایش رطوبت نسبی، کاهش دما و تلطیف هوای کلان شهر‌ها، کنترل تشعشعات خورشید و جلوگیری از بازتاب نور‌های مزاحم موثر هستند. با توجه به اهمیت توسعه و حفظ فضا‌های سبز در شهر‌ها مصرف آب جهت آبیاری آن‌ها افزایش پیدا می‌کند از طرفی دیگر با توجه به منابع محدود آب، تخمین مناسب نیاز آبی فضای سبز نیازمند توجه ویژه است. در فضا‌های سبز گونه‌های گیاهی متفاوت با نیاز آبی مختلف در کنار هم و به صورت مختلط کشت می‌شوند و عدم توجه به این موضوع باعث هدر رفت آب خواهد گردید. بنابراین با استفاده از روش‌هایی که بتوانند تبخیر- تعرق را در فضای سبز به درستی و با دقت بیشتر برآورد نمایند می‌توان به کاهش اتلاف آب کمک کرد. در این مطالعه میزان آب مورد نیاز برای آبیاری فضای سبز پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران با استفاده از سه روش Wucols، Pf و Ipos به مدت یک سال از فروردین تا اسفند 1399 برآورد گردید. میزان نیاز ناخالص آبیاری با روش‌های Wucols، Pf و Ipos به ترتیب برابر با 8/794، 7/722و 9/346 میلی‌متر محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد که روش Wucols به دلیل در نظر گرفتن پارامتر‌های بیشتر نظیر گونه گیاهی، تراکم پوشش گیاهی و ریزاقلیم دقت بیشتری در مقایسه با سایر روش‌های بر آورد نیاز آبی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evapotranspiration Estimation at Landscape Scale by WUCOLS, PF and IPOS Methods (Karaj)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z. Sojoodi 1
  • H. Shokati 2
  • Y. Sojoodi 3
  • M. Mashal 4
1 Ph.D Student in Water Science and Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Ph.D Student in Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Graduated with a Master's Degree in Energy Systems Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Abu Reihan College, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction
The constructive effects of green spaces on the quality and livability of the urban environment have been reported in many studies. Therefore, using methods that can accurately estimate the evaporation of transpiration in green space can help to reduce water loss. The purpose of estimating water demand for urban green space is also different from the purpose of determining water demand for an agricultural farm. In urban green space, the goal is to maintain good growth, appearance and acceptable plant health, while biomass production is the main goal on agricultural farms. Therefore, urban green space can typically be managed using an irrigation area that is less than the amount of water needed to produce agricultural products. Due to the limited water resources in arid areas, the use of less irrigation in urban green space can be desirable to save water consumption.
Materials and Methods
The Wucols method for estimating Water requirements in green space was developed by Castello et al. (4). They developed the Wucols water taxonomy guidelines for planting green space in California. The Wucols method estimates evapotranspiration in green space using reference evapotranspiration and a set of coefficients (Species factor, density factor and microclimate factor). PF method is the minimum acceptable irrigation for green space plants that emphasizes maintaining the beauty of the plant. In this method, the water required by green space plants is considered as a percentage of ET0 so as not to reduce their appearance and performance. In this approach, PF is a regulatory factor that is actually considered instead of Kc and multiplied by ET0, except that the emphasis is on the appearance of the plant and not on its optimal growth and yield. The IPOS method has been developed by the Government of South Australia for planning and managing water needs in public open spaces, especially sports lawns and amusement parks. In this method, the water requirement of grass in urban open space is calculated. In this method, plant transpiration evaporation (ETL) is calculated by multiplying reference transpiration evaporation factors (ET0) by grass vegetation coefficient (Kc) by plant stress factor (Kst).
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest rate of evapotranspiration obtained by Wucols method was 83.38 mm during 21 Jun-21 Jul. Also, the rate of transpiration evaporation during one year of the experimental period was estimated to be 556.5 mm. The results of estimation of transpiration evaporation by PF method also show the maximum amount of transpiration evaporation during 21 Jun-21 Jul and is 75.55 mm. The evapotranspiration rate during one year was estimated to be 505.9 mm. For the Ipos method, the highest rate of transpiration evaporation was estimated to be 36.38 mm during 21 Jun-21 Jul and 242.9 mm during the experimental period. Gross irrigation requirement is estimated by considering 70% irrigation efficiency for each month using all three methods. For the Wucols method, the gross irrigation need during one year was estimated to be 794.8 mm. For the PF method was 722.7 mm and for the IPOS method was 346.9 mm. According to the reported irrigation records for the study area, which is 900 mm per year, the Wucols method has the closest result to the irrigation records.
Conclusion
The results showed that the Wucols method has the best and closest estimate according to the irrigation records of the study area. The gross irrigation requirement calculated by the Wucols method during a year is 794.8 mm, which is 12% less than the gross annual irrigation requirement of the studied green space. While PF and IPOS methods determined the amount of gross demand 20 and 62% less than the annual irrigation rate in the region, respectively. The results of this study show that the Wucols method for estimating the water requirement of plants in urban green space where there is a combination of different plant species is more reliable than the PF and IPOS methods due to the diversity of species, vegetation density and different climates.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agriculture
  • climate
  • vegetation
  • Water requirements
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