عنوان مقاله [English]
Considering the value of water in agriculture and the limitation of this important and vital resource and the existence of intermittent droughts in the country, saving in consumption and optimal use of available water seems necessary. Today, utilizing saltwater is considered one of the practical and effective approaches to minimize water consumption while achieving acceptable economic performance. Given the scarcity of freshwater sources, the utilization of unconventional water for strawberry cultivation holds significant economic importance. Through the application of innovative technologies, such as magnetic technology, the modification of these water sources can lead to increased quantitative and qualitative yields of agricultural products. Salinity stress, which alters the water and nutrient absorption patterns, directly impacts the plant's yield in terms of both quantity and quality. Strawberry is an important commercial product, and the quantitative and qualitative increase of its yield is emphasized from different aspects. The purpose of this research is to the effect of salinity stress under the influence of a magnetic field on the yield and yield components of the strawberry plant.
Materials and Methods
The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of salinity stress under the influence of magnetic fields on the yield and yield components of strawberry plants. The factorial experiment was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2021 and 2022 in Neka city. The control treatment included full irrigation in all stages of plant growth with normal water (non-magnetic). The treatments include the type of irrigation water at two levels (Non-Magnetic Water (W1) and Magnetic Water (W2)), and water salinity was at three levels (0.86 dS/m (S1), 20 mM sodium chloride (S2), and 40 mM sodium chloride (S3). The strawberry plant of the Silva cultivar was cultivated in 3 x 4-meter plots with a row spacing of 40 cm and a between the spacing of 40 cm. Magnetization of irrigation water was created by passing water through a permanent magnet with a magnetic field intensity of 0.3 Tesla. The salt used for salinity stress was laboratory sodium chloride. The used irrigation method was drip (tape), and the amount of irrigation water and irrigation cycle was done according to the needs of the plant. Soil moisture monitoring was used to calculate the amount of applied water.
Results and Discussion
The results of analysis of variance showed that the effect of the irrigation water type and different levels of water salinity on the length, diameter, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, biomass and plant yield was significant at the 1% probability level. The effect of water salinity on the number of fruits per plant was significant at the 1% probability level and on the fruit length and fruit diameter at the 5% probability level. The interaction effect of irrigation water type and water salinity was also significant at the probability level of 1%. On average, during two years of strawberry cultivation with the application of a magnetic field, the length, diameter, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, biomass, and plant yield were increased by 9.76, 14.14, 23.05, 27.60, 27.08, and 28.36% respectively. The introduction of 20 and 40 mM sodium chloride resulted in a decrease in the physical characteristics of strawberry fruit and overall yield. The most significant reduction was observed in the number of fruits per plant at the salinity level of 40 mM sodium chloride, exhibiting a 56.69% decrease compared to the control treatment.
The growth of population and expansion of agriculture on one hand and the demand for more harvesting from limited water resources on the other hand, make it necessary to increase water productivity. Lack of water and competition for water resources has caused research to be done in order to reduce water consumption and preserve its resources. Therefore, searching for ways to reduce consumption and preserve water resources is of great importance. One of these methods is using magnetic water. The results of the research showed that the use of magnetic water technology caused a significant increase in the yield and yield components of strawberries compared to the control treatment. In addition, the salinity level of irrigation water had a significant impact on the yield and yield components of strawberries, with the highest yield observed in the treatment without salinity stress when using magnetic water technology. The findings of this study indicate that the application of magnetic water technology can enable the use of low salinity levels and lead to improved strawberry yield.