اثر کاربرد پلی‌آکریل‌آمید در مهار فرسایش پاشمانی از خاک تحت تأثیر پدیده انجماد- ذوب

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرّس

چکیده

بررسی اثرات پدیده انجماد و انجماد- ذوب در مباحث فرسایش و تولید رسوب حائز اهمیت است. با این‌حال، حفاظت خاک‌های تحت تاثیر این پدیده‌ها با شیوه‌های مختلف و از جمله استفاده از افزودنی‌ها هنوز مورد توجه قرار نگرفته است. از این‌رو پژوهش حاضر برای ارزیابی عملکرد پلی‌آکریل‌آمید (PAM) در مهار تأثیر چرخه انجماد- ذوب روی فرسایش پاشمانی از یک خاک لوم سیلتی انجام پذیرفت. در این راستا، فرسایش پاشمانی با استفاده از فنجان‌های پاشمان در دو تیمار شاهد بدون استفاده از PAM روی خاک با شرایط انجماد و دیگری با انجماد- ذوب و دو تیمار با شرایط انجماد و دیگری با انجماد- ذوب بعد از کاربرد PAM به ‌میزان 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار اندازه‌گیری شد. میانگین میزان فرسایش پاشمانی خالص، در بالادست و پایین‌دست فنجان‌های پاشمان در کلیه تیمارهای آزمایش با آزمون t جفتی مقایسه شد. مقایسه میانگین‌های مقادیر رسوب مشاهداتی و برآوردی نشان‌دهنده اختلاف معنی‌دار (018/0P

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Polyacrylamide in Controlling of Splash Erosion from a Soil induced Freeze-Thaw Cycle

نویسندگان [English]

  • S.H.R. Sadeghi
  • M.B. Raisi
  • Z. Hazbavi
Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The capability of a soil to resist erosion depends on soil-particle size and distribution, soil structure and structural stability, soil permeability, water content, organic matter content, and mineral and chemical constituents. Among many affecting factors on aforesaid characteristics, the freezing-thawing processes may considerably affects. Freeze–thaw fluctuation is a natural phenomenon that is frequently encountered by soils in the higher latitude and altitude regions in late autumn and early spring. Effects of freezing and freezing-thawing phenomena on soil erosion and sediment yield are important. Nevertheless, soil conservation under these phenomena by using different methods as well as soil amendments has not been yet considered. Surface application of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) in solution has been found to be very effective in decreasing seal formation, runoff, and erosion.PAM stabilizes soil structure due to the ability of the polymer chains to adsorb onto clay particles and bridge them together forming stable domains. This adsorption can be a result of interactions between the negatively-charged functional groups of the PAM molecules and the positively-charged edges of clay minerals, orexchangeable polycations (mainly Ca2+) acting as ‘bridges’ between the negative charges of the PAM's functional groups and the negatively- charged planar surfaces of the clay. The PAM is adsorbed on the external surfaces of the aggregates and binds soil particles far apart together, thereby were shorter and evidently less effective in enhancing increasing their resistance to splash by raindrop impact and detachment by runoff. A lot of research work focused on freezing effects in soils on aggregation or increase aggregate stability and emphasis corresponding effects. But the effects of application of soil amendments on soil induced freeze and thaw cycle have not been studied yet.
Materials and Methods: The present study evaluated the performance of PAM in controlling freeze-thaw cycle effects on splash erosion from a silty loam soil. A freeze-thaw cycle was simulated in Soil Erosion and Rainfall Simulation Laboratory of TarbiatModares University. The present study was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions with a simulated rainfall. The maximum efforts were made to mimic natural conditions to get access to results with high level of fidelity. Towards this attempt, air and different soil depth temperatures were analyzed in natural condition and 10 cm soil depth was targeted for the soil laboratory experiments. The rainfall storm with 72 mm h-1 and 30 min duration was simulated and conducted for the study treatments. The soil was poured in small erosion box with 0.25 m2 surface area in three replicates. A thick filter, draining the lower 20 cm of the soil profile was generated using mineral pumices.The prepared soil sample was evenly packed into the soil plots at a bulk density of 1.3 Mg m−3 similar to that measured under natural conditions. The plots were then placed in saturated pool for 24 h and then left to be drained to achieve an average moisture content of 35% similar to that recorded for the realities in the study area. So, splash erosion rates were measured using splash cups in two control treatments without PAM subjected to freezing and freezing-thawing processes, and two other plots treated by freezing and freezing-thawing processesplus application of 20 kg ha-1 of PAM. After securing thenormality ofdata, the average net splash erosionand the average upward and downward rates of splash erosion in allexperimental treatmentswere comparedby paired sampled T-test.
Results and Discussion: According to the results of statistical analyses, the PAM application had a significant effect (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bojnourd
  • Soil Amendments
  • Soil Conservation
  • Splash Erosion
1- AkbarzadehA.,Taghizadeh Mehrjardi R., Refahi H.G., Rouhipour H., and Gorji M. 2009. Using soil binders to control runoff and soil loss in steep slopesunder simulated rainfall. International Agrophysics, 23:99-109.
2- Behzadfar M. Sadeghi S.H.R., Khangani M.J., and Hazbavi Z. 2012. Effectability of runoff and sediment yield from soils induced by freezing and thawing cycle under simulated rainfall condition. Journal of Soil and Water Resources Conservation, 2(1): 13-25. (in Persian with English abstract)
3- Behzadfar M., Sadeghi, S.H.R., Hazbavi Z., and Khanjani M.J. 2013. Role of freezing and thawing cycle on runoff coefficient, In: Abstracts proceedings of 9th national seminar on watershed management engineering and science, October 30-31, 2013: 134 (Full paper published in CD, 4p), (in Persian)
4- Behzadfar M., Sadeghi S.H.R., and Khanjani, M.J. 2013. Application of polyacrylamide on controlling soil freeze-thaw cycle effect on runoff generation and soil loss. Journal of Water Research. Accepted for publication (in Persian with English abstract)
5- Bisal F. 1960. The effect of raindrop size and impact velocity on sand splash. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 40:242-245.
6- Boroghani M., and Hayavi F. Application of polyacrylamide for splash erosion control on marl soil. 2011. Environmental Erosion Researches, 3:31-44. (in Persian with English abstract)
7- Ellison W.D. 1944. Studies of raindrop size erosion. Agriculture Engineering, 25:131-136.
8- Entry J.E., Mills D.E., Jayachandran K., and Sojka R.E. 2013. High polyacrylamide application rates do not affect eubacterial structural diversity. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 224:1382. 10 p.
9- Fatahei E., and Salehi Pak T. 2009. A synoptic patterns analysis of winter freezing in Iran. Geography and Development Iranian Journal, 7 (13): 127-136. (in Persian with English abstract)
10- Flerchinger G.N., and Saxton K.E. 1989. Simultaneous heat and water model of a freezing snow-residue-soil system I. theory and development. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 32(2):565-570.
11- Ghazavi M., and Roustaei M. 2013. Freeze–thaw performance of clayey soil reinforced with geotextile layer. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 89: 22-29
12- Gholami L., Sadeghi S.H.R., and Homaee M. 2013. Straw mulching effect on splash erosion, runoff and sediment yield from eroded plots. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 77: 268-278.
13- Hawke R.M., Price A.G., and Bryan R.B., 2006. The effect of initial soil water content and rainfall intensity on near-surface soil hydrologic conductivity: a laboratory investigation. Catena, 65:237-246.
14- Hazbavi Z., Sadeghi S.H.R., and Younesi H. 2012. Analysis and assessing effectability of runoff components from different levels of polyacrylamide. Water and Soil Resources Conservation Journal, ISSN 2251-7480. 2(2): 1-13. (in Persian with English abstract)
15- KhalediDarvishan A.V., Sadeghi S.H.R., Homaee M., and Arabkhedri M. 2014. Measuring sheet erosion using synthetic color-contrast aggregates. Hydrological Processes, 28, 4463–4471.
16- Khaledian H., and Shahooty S. 2010. Splash erosion measurement and its relationship to rainfall Intensity in Kordestan province. Iranian Water Resource Journal, 4(6): 19-24. (in Persian)
17- Li D., Li Y.K., Christians N.E., and Minner D.D. 2000. Inorganic soil amendment effects on sand-based sports turf media. Alliance of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Science Societies, 40(4):1121-1125.
18- Morgan R.P.C. 1978. Field studies of rainsplash erosion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 3:295-299.
19- Nanko K., Mizugaki S., and Onda Y. 2008. Estimation of soil splash detachment rates on the forest floor of an unmanaged Japanese cypress plantation based on field measurements of through fall drop sizes and velocities. Catena, 72:348-361.
20- Orts W.J., Glenn G.M., Imam S.H., Sojka R.E., Sikes C.S., and Hochwalt M.A. 2013. Biopolymer additives. Patent No: US 8,410,194B1. 9pp.
21- Rabbani F., and Karami F. 2009. Studing of the trend of the number of frost days in the Northern Khorasan. Journal of Physical Geograpgy. 1(4):85 -94. (in Persian)
22- Razali N.M., and Wah Y.B. 2011. Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogrov-Smirnov, Lillifores and Anderson-Darling tests. Journal of Statistical Modeling and Analytics, 2(1):21-33.
23- Rezaie Pasha, M., Kavian, A., and Vahabzade, GH. 2012. Experimental study of splash erosion and its relation with some soil properties in three adjacent land uses (A case study: Kasilian Watershed). JWSS- Isfahan University of Technology, 15(58): 257-269. URL http://jstnar.iut.ac.ir/browse.php?a_code=A-10-1114-2&slc_lang=fa&sid=1. (in Persian)
24- Peterson J.R., Flanagan D.C., and Tishmack J.K., 2002. PAM application method and electrolyte source effects on plot-scale runoff and erosion. Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 45(6):1859-1867.
25- Sadeghi S.H.R., Hazbavi Z., Younesi H. and Behzadfar M. 2013. Trend of soil loss and sediment concentration changeability due to application of polyacrylamide. Journal of Soil and Water Resources Conservation, 2(4): 53-67. (in Persian with English abstract).
26- Shoemaker A.E. 2009. Evaluation of anionic polyacrylamide as an erosion control measure using intermediate-scale experimental procedures. Auburn University MSc. Thesis, USA, 220p.
27- Taskin O., and Ferhan F., 2003. Effect of freezing and thawing processes on soil aggregate stability. Catena, 52:1-8.
28- Unger P.W., Fryrear D.W., and Lindstrom M.J. 2006. Soil Conservation. American Society of Agronomy, Chapter 4:87-111.
29- Wang A.P., Li F.H., and Yang S.M. 2011. Effect of polyacrylamide application on runoff, erosion, and soil nutrient loss under simulated rainfall. Pedosphere, 21(5):628-638.
30- Wang D.Y., Ma W., Niu Y.H., Chang X.X., and Wen Z.2007. Effects of cyclic freezing and thawing on mechanical properties of Qinghai.X. andclay. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 48(1):34-43.