بررسی تغییرات کیفیت خاک در اثر آبیاری با استفاده از مدل‌های شاخص تجمعی و نمورو در برخی از خاک‌های استان خوزستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، رامین خوزستان

چکیده

این تحقیق به منظور ارزیابی شاخص‌‌های کیفی خاک با استفاده از مدل های کمی در بخشی از اراضی استان خوزستان انجام شد. خصوصیات فیزیکی وشیمیایی نمونه‌های خاک تهیه شده از عمق 30-0 مانند بافت، جرم مخصوص، پایداری خاکدانه، رطوبت ظرفیت مزرعه‌ای نسبی، تخلخل تهویه‌ای، آب قابل استفاده گیاه، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع، کربن آلی، قابلیت هدایت الکتریکی، پ‌هاش، کاتیون‌های محلول، نسبت جذب سدیم، درصد سدیم تبادلی وظرفیت تبادلی کاتیونی اندازه‌گیری شد. کیفیت خاک با استفاده از دو مدل شاخص تجمعی کیفیت خاک (IQI) و شاخص کیفیت خاک نمورو (NQI) و هرکدام در دو مجموعه‌ی ویژگی‌های خاک TDS و MDS ارزیابی شد. نتایج نشان داد همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری بین IQITDS و IQIMDS و بین NQITDS و NQIMDS وجود داشت. لذا می‌توان با اندازه‌گیری پارامترهای کمتر، برای تعیین کیفیت خاک به طور تقریبی به نتایج مشابه حاصل از سنجش TDS رسید و موجب صرفه‌جویی در وقت و هزینه ‌شد. طبق نتایج مهم‌ترین عامل محدود کننده کیفیت خاک کمبود ماده آلی، کاهش تخلخل تهویه‌ای و افزایش جرم مخصوص ظاهری خاک بود. همچنین، تراکم ناشی از تردد بیش از حد و تغییر شرایط بهینه رشد گیاه ناشی از عبور و مرور ادوات کشاورزی سنگین باعث کاهش کیفیت خاک شده است. اگر چه به واسطه کشت و کار میزان ماده آلی افزایش یافته بود با این وجود با مدیریت بهتر می‌توان از اثرات آن برای بهبود درجه کیفی خاک بهره بیشتری برد. بنابراین با عملیات مدیریت ویژه‌ای نظیر تغییر شیوه کشت، شخم، مدیریت بقایا، مصرف کود و حضور ماده آلی به مقدار بهینه و... میتوان با ایجاد ساختمان مناسب و پایدار جلوی تخریب ساختمان و در نتیجه تغییر توزیع خلل وفرج را گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study the Soil Quality Changes Indicators Using Nemoro and Integrated Quality Index Models in Some Khuzestan’s Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • F. Ramezani
  • S. Jafari
  • A. Salavati
  • B. Khalilimoghaddam
University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ramin,
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Aspects of the physical, chemical and biological are considered. Land degradation for soil quality, or improve soil quality assessment is important.This study was conducted to evaluate soil quality indicators using quantitative models in some lands of Khuzestan province (Iran).Such studies, which are carried out to create a balance between the biological production and the maintenance and improvement of land resource quality, provide a framework for land degradation control and also for identification of sustainable management. Such studies, which are carried out to create a balance between the biological production and the maintenance and improvement of land resource quality, provide a framework for land degradation control and also for identification of sustainable management.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate the effect of crop management and cultivation on soil quality, Select several Khuzestan region and Samples were taken from the surrounding cultivated land. Physiochemical characteristics of soil samples from a depth of0-30 cm such as soil texture, bulk density (Db), mean weight diameter of wet aggregates (MWD), relative field capacity (RFC), air capacity (FA),plant available water capacity (AWC), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), organic carbon (OC),electrical conductivity (EC), pH, soluble cations (Mg, Ca, Na),sodium absorption ratio (SAR), exchange sodium percent (ESP) and cation exchange capacity were determined (CEC). The soil quality was evaluated by integrated quality index (IQI) and Nemero quality index (NQI) in two data sets of soil properties including MDS and TDS. In these models, a set of characteristics that affect the quality of the soil in the form of a mathematical model incorporating and to propose a numerical quantity this number serve as general indicator of soil quality, Reflect the characteristics of the target.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that there was significant correlation between IQITDS - IQIMDS and between NQITDS -NQIMDS. The results show that the NQITDS model can be saved in compire with IQI models. This can decrease the time and costs in this method. But in some regions due to low correlation with Using a set of MDS, which comprise more limited number of soil characteristics You cannot reliably determine soil quality indicators are acceptable and should use the same set of TDS. Also, the results show that the soil was compacted due to heavy traffic, and this has reduced soil quality. The most important limiting factor of quality soil was reduced soil organic matter and porosity and increased bulk density. None of the subjects in the study area are not very stable and unstable. According to the research, increased of cultivation in most soils were clay and silt and decreased sand content. The burning of sugarcane after harvesting, can be to cause reduce organic matter, Finally, reduced the cation exchange capacity related of the soil organic matter and thus increased the bulk density of soil and reduced the soil structural stability. Decreased the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract and sodium adsorption ratio under cultivation and showed increasing trend pH of soil in all the samples. Finally reduced under cultivation soil quality. Nevertheless, we can better manage the effects can be even more improved soil quality grade. Therefore, a special management operations, such as changing the way farming, plowing, residue management, fertilizer use and the presence of organic matter the optimum, Reduce negative environmental effects such as the effect of insecticides and heavy metals... By creating a suitable building could be Prevent the destruction of the building and therefore the distribution of pores.
Conclusion: This investigation showed the efficiency of soil quality studies for the evaluation of present conditions of soil in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Therefore, these soils need to special management, such as minimum tillage or no tillage, addition of residues, and improve of aggregate stability can be applied for soil improvement quality. These strategies can improve soil prosity and, therefore, it can reduce bulk density under monocroping system. Therefore, special management practices seems essential in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the importance of soil quality in balancing the environment and the sustainability of agricultural systems, in addition to the chemical and physical factors, biological factors to take appropriate management programs and improve soil quality checked.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • NQI Models
  • IQI Models
  • Physicochemical properties
1- Arshad M. A., and Martin S. 2002. Identifying critical limits for soil quality indicators in agro ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 88: 153-160.
2- Banaie M. H., M. Baibordi M., Momeni A., and Malakouti M. J. 2004. Iran soils (New developments in the identification, management and utilization). Soil and Water Research Institute. Sana publications. 481 pp. (in Persian).
3- Blake G. R., and Hartge K. H. 1986. Bulk density. In: Klute, A. (Ed), Methods of soil analysis. 2Th Ed. American Society of Agronomy, Inc., SSSA. 9. Madison. WI. USA. Pp. 363-375.
4- Ditzler C. A., and Tugel A. J. 2002. Soil quality field tools of USDA, NRCS. Soil quality institute. Agron, 94: 33–38.
5- Doran J.W., and Parkin T. B. 1994. Defining and assessing soil quality. In: J.W. Doran et al. (Eds.). Definingsoil quality for a sustainable environment. SSSA, Special Publication. P. 35.
6- Doran J. W., Sarrantonio M., and Leibig M. A. 1996. Soil health and sustainability. Adv. Agron, 56: 1-56.
7- Eynard A., Schumacher T. E., Lindstrom M. J., and Malo D. D. 2004. Aggregate sizes and stability in cultivatedSouth Dakota prairie Ustolls and Usterts. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68:1360-1365.
8- Feng Z., Wang X., and Feng Z. 2005. Soil N and salinity leaching after the autumn irrigation andits impact ongroundwater in Hetao Irrigation District, China. Agric. Water Manag, 71: 131–143.
9- Fuentes J. P., Flury M., and Bezdicek D. F. 2004. Hydraulic properties in a Silt Loam soil under Natural Prairie, Conventional Till, and No-Till. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68: 1679-1688.
10- Gee G. W. and Bauder J. W. 1986. Particle size analysis. In: A. Klute(ed.). Method of soil analysis. Part. 1. SSSA. pp: 383-411.
11- Ghorbani Z., Jafari S., and Khalil moghaddam B. 2013. The effect of soil physicochemical properties under different land use on aggregate stability in some part of Khuzestan province in some lands of Khuzestan province.Electronic journal of soil management and sustainable production. Vol. 3(2), 2013: 29-51. (in Persian).
12- Govaerts B., Sayre K. D., and Deckers J. 2006. A minimum data set for soil qualityassessment of wheat and maize cropping in the highlands of Mexico. Soil and TillageResearch, 87:163–174.
13- Jafari s. 2005. The study of mineralogical, Structural, Physicochemical evolution and K fixation in soils and clay minerals in rotation crop, sugarcane and fallow. PhD thesis. Shiraz university. Department of Soil Science. (in Persian).
14- Jafari s., Naseri A., Hajishah M., and Sharifipour M.. 2008. Prediction of drainage water quality from utilization and amended of saline and alkali land in Khuzestan Province. Second National Conference on Irrigation and Drainage network management. ShahidChamranUniversity of Ahvaz. (In Persian).
15- Jafari s., and Nadian H. 2011. The Study the evolution of soils in a Toposequence in Khuzestan province. Plan No. 85-17. Ramin agriculture and natural resources. (in Persian)
16- Karimi H., Soufi M., Haghnia G., and Khorasani R. 2008. Investigation ofaggregate stability and soil erosion potential in some loamy and sandy clayloam soils: case studyin Lamerd watershed (south of Fars province). J. Gorgan Agric. Sc. Nat. Res. 14: 6. 348-356.
17- Khormali F., Ajami M., Ayoubi S., Srinivasarao Ch., and Wani S.P. 2009. Roleof deforestation and hillslope position on soil quality attributes of loess-derivedsoils in Golestan province, Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 134: 178-189.
18- Kohnke H. soil physics. Rafie M. J. Tehran University. 296 pp.
19- Marquez C. O., Garcia V. J., Cambardella C. A., Schultz., R. C., and Isenhart, T. M. 2004. Aggregate- Size Stability Distribution and Soil Stability. Soil Sci. Soc. A. J. 68:725-735.
20- Mohammadi J., Khademi H., and Nael M. The Study of variability of soil quality in selected ecosystems in Central Zagros. Journal of science and technology of agriculture and natural resources, water and soil science. Vol 9(3): 105-120. (in Persian).
21- Naseri A. A., Jafari S., and AliMohammad M. 2007. Soil compaction due to Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) mechanical harvesting and the effects of subsoiling on the improvement of soil physical properties. J. Ap. Sci. 7:23. 3639-3648.
22- Norton B. J., Sandor J. A., and White C. S. 2003. Hillslope soils and organic matter dynamicswithin native American agro ecosystem of the Colorado Plateau. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 67: 225-234.
23- Page A. L., Miller R. H., and Keeney D. R. 1982. Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2, chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Inc. Soil Science Society of America. Madison, WI.
24- Qi Y., Jeremy L., Darilek B. H., Yongcun Z., Weixia S., and Zhiquan G.2009. Evaluating soil quality indices in an agricultural region of Jiangsu Province, China.Geoderma, 149:325-334.
25- Reynolds W. D., Drury C. F., Tan C. S., Fox C. A., and Yang X. M. 2009. Use of indicators and pore volume functioncharacteristics to quantify soil physical quality. Geoderma, 152: 252-263.
26- Shahab Arkhazloo H., Emami H., and Haghnia G. H.2012. Evaluation of the relationship of soil quality models andsustainability indices of agricultural and rangelandsoils in south Mashhad. Iranian J. Soil Research, (Soil and Water Sci.) Vol. 26, No. 3.
27- Shukla M. K., Lal R., and Ebinger M. 2004. Soil quality indicators for the North Appalachian experimental watersheds in Coshocton, Ohio. Soil Science, 169:195–205.
28- Walkley A. 1947. A Critical examination of a rapid method for determining soil organic carbon in soils. Effect of variations in digestion conditions and inorganic soil constituents. Soil Sci. 63: 251-263.
29- Wang X. J., and Gong Z. T. 1998. Assessment and analysis of soil quality changes after eleven years of reclamation in subtropical China. Geoderma, 81: 339–355.
30- Whalen J.K., and Chang C. 2002. Macro aggregate characteristics in cultivatedsoilsafter 25 annual manure applications. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66: 1637-1647.
31- Wu R., and Tiessen H. 2002. Effect of land use on soil degradation in Alpine grassland soil, China. Soil Sci.Soc.Am. J. 66: 1648-1655
32- Zehtabian Gh. R., Sardari M., and Souri M. 2006.The Effect of irrigation on soil salinization. Case study in Yazd-Ardakan. Journal of the desert. Vol 11(1): 197-210. (in Persian).