اثرات نوع و مقدار نیتروژن و آبیاری بر جذب نیتروژن ذرت علوفه ای و نیترات باقی مانده خاک

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان مرکزی

2 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خراسان رضوی

چکیده

بهبود مدیریت نیتروژن در رابطه با تولید ذرت رابطه تنگاتنگی با مقدار رطوبت خاک دارد. در این مطالعه اثرات نوع و مقادیر کود نیتروژنی و آب آبیاری بر تولید ذرت علوفه ای مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. این تحقیق بصورت کرتهای دوبار خرد شده با سه تکرار به مدت سه سال در ایستگاه کشاورزی اراک به اجرا در آمد. کرت اصلی شامل دور آبیاری پس از 70 ، 100 و 130 میلیمتر تبخیر تجمعی از تشتک کلاس A و کرت فرعی شامل دو منبع کود اوره و نیترات آمونیم و کرت های فرعی فرعی 5 مقدار نیتروژن (0، 100، 200، 300 و 400 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تنش آبی تولید علوفه خشک را در سطح یک درصد، به صورت منفی و معنی دار کاهش داده ولی مقدار نیتروژن در این راستا دارای تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار بود. مقدار نیتروژن در سطح یک درصد بر روی غلظت نیتروژن گیاه، تاثیر مثبت و معنی دار داشت، بطوریکه مقدار آن از 97/0 درصد در تیمار شاهد به 36/1 درصد در تیمار 300 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار رسید. جذب کل نیتروژن گیاه در شرایط رطوبتی متفاوت به صورت مثبت و معنی دار تحت تاثیر مقدار نیتروژن قرار گرفت. همچنین اثرات متقابل آبیاری، مقدار و منبع نیتروژن در سالهای مختلف، بر نیترات باقیمانده در هر دو عمق 0 تا 30 و 30 تا 60 سانتیمتر در سطح یک درصد مثبت و معنی دار بود. معادلات رگرسیون خطی نشان داد که با افزایش مقدار کود نیتروژن، نیترات باقیمانده در هر دو عمق 30-0 و 60-30 سانتیمتری زیاد شد و با مصرف 400 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار، این مقدار در عمق های یاد شده به ترتیب به 7/24 و 1/26 میلی گرم در کیلوگرم رسید. بنابراین با در نظر گرفتن راندمان جذب کل نیتروژن، مقدار نیترات باقیمانده در خاک و عملکرد بهینه، مقدار 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار از منبع اوره و آبیاری پس از 100 میلی متر تبخیر برای ذرت علوفه ای در شرایط مشابه این آزمایش ، قابل توصیه می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. A. Khodshenas 1
  • J. Ghadbeiklou 1
  • M. Dadivar 2
1 Markazi Agricultural and Resources Research and Training Center, AREEO
2 Agricultural and Resources Research and Training Center
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths.
Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level) during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts). Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate) and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1). Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season) based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air oven at 70ºC for at least 3 days before weighting. Total N concentration in the plant samples were determined using kjeldahl method. Nitrogen uptake by plants was calculated based on the total N concentration in plants multiplied by dry matter. Residual nitrate concentrations were determined in soil samples (0-30 and 30-60 cm depths) by diazo method. Combined analysis of variance was accomplished using the MSTAT-C software. Mean comparisons were done using Duncan multiple rang test (DMRT).
Results: The results showed that the main effect of water stress on dry matter yield was negative and significant (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fertilizer Needs
  • Silage corn
  • Water stress
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