عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths.
Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD) with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level) during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts). Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate) and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1). Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season) based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air oven at 70ºC for at least 3 days before weighting. Total N concentration in the plant samples were determined using kjeldahl method. Nitrogen uptake by plants was calculated based on the total N concentration in plants multiplied by dry matter. Residual nitrate concentrations were determined in soil samples (0-30 and 30-60 cm depths) by diazo method. Combined analysis of variance was accomplished using the MSTAT-C software. Mean comparisons were done using Duncan multiple rang test (DMRT).
Results: The results showed that the main effect of water stress on dry matter yield was negative and significant (P