رابطه بین توپوگرافی و برخی ویژگی های خاک

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

توپوگرافی یکی از ویژگی های مهم و تأثیرگذار بر کیفیت خاک در هر منطقه است. در این پژوهش رابطه درجه و جهت شیب با برخی از ویژگی-های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک مانند بعد فرکتال ذرات، درصد شن، رس و سیلت، درصد کربنات کلسیم معادل، درصد کربن آلی، میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه و شاخص پایداری ساختمان خاکبررسی شد. برای انجام تجزیه های آزمایشگاهی یک ردیف پستی و بلندی4با طول شیب، مواد مادری یکسان انتخاب و30 نمونه از خاک در شیب های کمتر از 5، 15-5، 30-15، 50-30 و بیشتر از 50 درصد، با سه تکرار و در دو جهت شمالی و جنوبی در قالب طرح آشیانه ای نمونه برداری شد. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده، مقادیر کربنات کلسیم و کربن آلی در شیب های مختلف دارای اختلاف معنی داری در سطح پنج درصد بود. مقدار کمینه کربنات کلسیم در شیب کمتر از 5 درصد جنوبی و مقدار بیشینه آن در شیب بیشتر از 50 درصد جنوبی مشاهده شد، درحالی که مقدار کمینه کربن آلی در شیب بیشتر از 50 درصد جنوبی و بیشینه آن در شیب کمتر از 5 درصد جنوبی وجود داشت. بین میانگین درصد کربنات کلسیم و کربن آلی در دو جهت شیب اختلاف معنی داری وجود داشت. همچنین مقدار شاخص پایداری ساختمان خاک و میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه ها در جهت شمالی به طور معنی داری بیشتر از جنوبی بود. با وجود اینکه کلاس بافت خاک تقریبا در همه درجه-های شیب یکسان بود، درصد شن، رس و سیلت در طول شیب تغییرات زیادی داشت. به طوری که با افزایش شیب درصد ذرات درشت تر افزایش و درصد ذرات ریزتر کاهش یافت. بعد فرکتال ذرات نیز با کاهش درصد شیب، افزایش یافت. با توجه به این که در هنگام گزارش کلاس بافتی خاک درصد شن، رس و سیلت آن بیان نمی شود، می توان گفت که بعد فرکتال ذرات نسبت به بافت خاک، تعریف بهتر و روشن تری از چگونگی توزیع اندازه ذرات خاک ارایه می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Relationship between Topography and Some Soil Properties

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. J. Pajand
  • H. Emami
  • A. Astaraee
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Topography is an important and effective property affecting the soil quality. Some researchers demonstrated that degree and aspect of land slope may influence the particle size distribution and gravel. Slope degree affects the surface and subsurface run-off, drainage, soil temperature, stability of soil aggregates and soil erosion. This research was carried out to determine the spatial variation of soil properties in different slope degrees of northern and southern slopes in Khorasan Razavei province, Iran.
Material and Methods: This study was performed in Sanganeh research station (longitude 60o 15ʹ60ʺ and latitude 36o 41ʹ 36ʺ), of north-eastern, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran. In order to study the effects of topography on some soil physical and chemical properties, a topo-sequence with the same slope length, parent materials and cover crops was selected. 30 soil samples (0-30 cm depth) were collected from different slopes of less than 5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50 and more than 50 percent of both southern and northern aspects. In this study, the soil particle size distribution (texture) was measured by hydrometer method, organic carbon and calcium carbonate were determined by wet oxidation and titration with HCl 6 M, respectively and soil structural stability index, aggregates mean weight diameter and particles fractal dimension were calculated by related equations. Finally, the studied soil properties of 5 slopes (less than 5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and more than 50%) and 2 aspects (north and south) with 3 replicates were compared by nested experimental design and Tuky test in JMP statistical software.
Results and Discussion: The maximum and minimum clay contents as well as fractal dimension and organic carbon contents were found in less than 5% and more than 50% of south slopes, respectively. Clay content and fractal dimension in north aspect were also significantly (P

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fractal Dimension of Solid Particles
  • Particle size distribution
  • Slope
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