ارتباط شکل‌های مختلف پتاسیم با کانی‌های رسی و تکامل خاک در برخی خاک های استان فارس

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه یاسوج

2 دانشگاه داراب

چکیده

ارتباط شکل های مختلف پتاسیم با نوع کانی های رسی و تکامل خاک با استفاده از چهارده نمونه خاک سطحی (20-0 سانتی متری) از مناطق انتخابی استان فارس مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. پتاسیم محلول در آب، قابل استخراج با استات آمونیوم یک مولار خنثی، اسید نیتریک یک مولار جوشان و پتاسیم کل اندازه گیری شد. نتایج کانی شناسی نشان داد که کانی های اسمکتیت، ایلیت، پالیگورسکیت و کلریت کانی های غالب در خاک-های مطالعه شده بودند. این پژوهش همچنین نشان داد که مقدار پتاسیم تبادلی، غیر تبادلی و کل در خاک ها به ترتیب در دامنه 230 تا 436، 282 تا 1235 و 2312 تا 9201 میلی گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک بوده‌اند. خاک های مورد مطالعه به طور کلی بر اساس تکامل خاک، کانی شناسی و مقدار پتاسیم کل در سه گروه قرار گرفتند. خاک های تکامل یافته تر (آلفی سولز)، کم تر تکامل یافته (اریدی سولز و اینسپتی سولز) و بدون تکامل پروفیلی (انتی سولز) به ترتیب در گروه های 1، 2 و 3 تقسیم شدند. بیشترین مقدار تمام شکل های پتاسیم، جز پتاسیم محلول در گروه 1 مشاهده شد. رابطه معنی داری همچنین بین تمام شکل های پتاسیم به جز محلول با مقدار ایلیت برقرار شد. نتایج کانی شناسی بیانگر غالب بودن کانی اسمکتیت و ایلیت در خاک آلفی سولز بوده که سبب افزایش پتاسیم قابل دسترس در این خاک ها شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Different Forms of Potassium as a Function of Clay Mineralogy and Soil Evolution in Some Soils of Fars Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Sadri 1
  • H.R. Owliaie 1
  • E. Adhami 1
  • M. Najafi Ghiri 2
1 Yasouj University
2 Darab University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The optimum and sustainable use of soil is only possible with a correct and complete understanding of its properties. Potassium (K+) is an essential element for plant growth and is a dynamic ion in the soil system and its importance in agriculture is well recognized. According to increasing order of plant availability, soil K exists in four forms: mineral (5000-25000 ppm), nonexchangeable (50-750 ppm), exchangeable (40-600 ppm), and solution (1-10 ppm). K cycling or transformations among the K forms in soils are dynamic. The objectives of the present research were to study the relationship between different forms of potassium and clay mineralogy as well as soil evolution of 14 surface soil samples from some selected locations of Fars Province.
Materials and methods: Fars provinces, with an area of 122000 km2 located in southern Iran. The elevation varies from 500 m to 4400 m above mean sea level. Mean annual precipitation ranges from about 350 mm to 850 mm. Mean annual temperature ranges from 10°C to 24°C. According to Soil Moisture and Temperature Regime Map of Iran, the soils comprise xeric, and ustic moisture regimes along with mesic, thermic and hyperthemic temperature regimes. Based on the previous soil survey maps of Fars province, 14 surface soil samples were collected. Routine physicochemical analyses and clay mineralogy were performed on soil samples. Soil reaction, texture, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate, and gypsum were identified. Soluble potassium, exchangeable potassium, non exchangeable potassium, and mineral potassium were measured. The amounts of K forms in each sample were determined. Total K was determined following digestion (110°C) of soil with 48 % HF and 6 M HCl. Water soluble K was measured in the saturated extract. Exchangeable K was extracted with 20 ml 1.0 M NH4OAc (pH 7.0) for 5 min. Nitric acid-extractable K was measured by extraction of a soil sample with boiling 1.0 M HNO3 for 1 h. Potassium was measured on all filtrated extracts by flame photometer. The content of clay minerals was determined semi-quantitatively, using peak areas on the diffractograms of ethylene glycol solvated specimens.
Results and discussion: The soils are all calcareous (average of 43% calcium carbonate equivalent) with relatively high clay contents (average of 34 %). The different forms of K including water soluble, exchangeable, HNO3-extractable, and mineral K are also relatively high in the studied soils. Mineralogical analysis indicated that smectite, illite, palygorskite and chlorite, were the major minerals in the clay fractions. The results also showed that exchangeable, non-exchangeable and total potassium were in the range of 230 to 436, 282 to 1235, and 2312 to 9201 mg/kg-1, respectively. The soils categorized into three groups based on the soil evolution, clay mineralogy, and total potassium. Well developed soils (Alfisols), slightly developed soils (Aridsols and Inceptisols), and non developed soils (Entisols), were categorized in groups of1, 2, and3. Except for soluble K, maximum of the other potassium forms were observed in group 1. Moreover, there was a high correlation between allpotassium forms andillite content, except for soluble potassium. Mineralogical results revealed that smectite and illite were the major clay minerals in Alfisols resulting high amount of available potassium. The differences among the soil groups in terms of clay percentages may be the results of differences in parent material. K concentration is greater in soils with higher content of calcium carbonate and this is resulted in the greater leaching of K in these soils. This is in consistent with the finding of the other authors, who concluded that calcite and gypsum have a positive effect on the concentration of K in soil solution and leaching of this element from soil.
Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated that the arid and semiarid soils of southern Iran have a relatively high content of K pools. Exchangeable and HNO3-extractable K exist in equilibrium with each other, but the exchangeability of HNO3-extractable K is greater in soils dominated with illite and montmorrilonite than other soils dominated with chlorite and palygorskite. It found that calcium carbonate content had a negative effect on different soil K pools except for water soluble K. The relationship obtained in this study will be allowed determination of soil K pools from clay mineralogy and chemical and physical properties such as exchangeable K, clay content and calcium carbonate content.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Illite
  • soil evolution
  • exchangeable potassium
  • nonexchangeable potassium
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