مطالعه ویژگی‌های کانی‌شناسی، میکرومورفولوژی و تغییر و تحول خاک‌های حاشیه پلایای بجستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

2 موسسه تحقیقات آب و خاک

چکیده

پلایا از جمله شکل‌های اراضی مهم در مناطق بیابانی می‌باشد و سطح زیادی را در این مناطق به خود اختصاص داده است. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی ویژگی‌ها، تغییر و تحول، میکرومورفولوژی و کانی‌شناسی خاک‌های حاشیه پلایای بجستان در شمال شرق ایران بود. برای این منظور پس از شناسایی زمین‌ریخت‌ها، در امتداد یک برش، 11 خاکرخ در سطوح ژئومورفیک مخروط افکنه حاشیه پلایا، اراضی حد واسط مخروط افکنه و کفه رسی و همچنین کفه رسی مطالعه شد. هدایت الکتریکی خاک‌ها از 9/0 در مخروط افکنه تا 7/36 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر در حاشیه کفه نمکی متغیر بود. بافت خاک در کفه رسی، لوم رسی با غالبیت سیلت بود. کانی‌های رسی خاک‌های مورد مطالعه به‌ترتیب فراوانی شامل اسمکتیت، ایلیت، کلریت و پالیگورسکیت بودند. بر خلاف پلایاهای دیگر در ایران، پالیگورسکیت فراوانی کمتری داشت. افق Btkb قرمز رنگ، متکامل‌ترین افق در کل منطقه در مخروط افکنه بود که در زیر لایه‌های سنگریزه‌دار آبرفتی مدفون شده ‌است. تجمع رس به صورت پوشش ذرات شن در مقطع نازک مشاهده شد. افق Bk، حداکثر تکامل در کفه رسی بود. پوشش رسی،کربنات‌های ثانویه اغلب به شکل نودول همراه با فرم‌های عدسی شکل گچ، پدوفیچرهای غالب خاک را تشکیل می‌دهند. وجود افق Bk در خاک‌های رویی و افق Btkb در بین توالی لایه‌های رسوبی، نشان‌ دهنده توالی فرآیندهای خاک‌سازی، فرسایش و رسوب است. افق Btkb نشان‌ دهنده یک دوره گرم و مرطوب‌تر و افق Bk نشان ‌دهنده یک دوره نسبتا مرطوب‌تر نسبت به زمان حاضر است. مورفولوژی خاک‌های مورد مطالعه، نشان ‌دهنده مشابهت شرایط خاک‌سازی منطقه مورد مطالعه با شرق و مرکز ایران است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigationof Clay Mineralogy, Micromorphology and Evolution of Soils in Bajestan Playa

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ghasemzadeh Ganjehie 1
  • Alireza Karimi 1
  • Ali Zeinadini 2
  • Reza Khorasani 1
1 Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
2 Agricultural Research Education and Extention Organization (AREEO)
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Playa is one of the most important landscapes in arid regions which covers about 1% of the world's total land area. Study of playas is important from different points of view especially pedology, sedimentology, mineralogy, environmental geology, groundwater and surface water chemistry. More than 60 playas have been identified in Iran. Considering the fact that playas and surrounding landforms are important archive of landscape evolution and paleoenvironmental variations, it seems that less attention has been paid to them so far. Soils are known as indicators of the landscapes evolution. Previous studies in arid regions of Iran imply different periods of deposition and soil formation in playa and alluvial fans or pediments. Bajestan playa is one of the known playa in northeastern Iran, and the largest clay flat exists in this playa. There is no information on the soils and their evolution in Bajestan playa. The objective of this study were to 1) identify the soils in different landforms along a transect from alluvial fan to clay in Bajestan playa 2) determine the morphological, micromorphological and mineralogical characteristics of these soils 3) determine the periods of soil and landform evolution and 4) comparison of soils evolution of the study area to other arid regions of Iran.
Material and Methods: The study area of approximately 20000 hectares is located in southeastern of KhorasanRazavi province. The climate of the study area is hot and dry with mean annual temperature and rainfall of 17.3 °C and 193 mm, respectively. Soil moisture regime is aridic with subdivisions of weak aridic and soil temperature regime is thermic. Firstly, landforms and geomorphic surfaces of the study area were recognized based on Google Earth images interpretations and field observations. Four main landforms were recognized in the study area. The landforms from north to the south of the study area were alluvial fan, intermediate alluvial fan- clay flat, pediment and clay flat. Considering the diversity of geomorphic units, 11 soil profiles were described and diffrenet soil layers and horizons were sampled. Undisturbed soil samples were taken micromorphological studies. Some horizons were selected for clay mineralogy analysis. The mineralogy of clay fraction was determined using X-ray diffraction method.
Results and discution: All studied soils except the profiles in the pediment were classified in the Aridisols order. There were two geomorphic surfaces in alluvial fans. In the first geomorphic surface a soil with the Bk horizon buried a soil with red Btk horizon. In the second geomorphic surface, it seems that the erosion has been removed the overlying soil. The Bk horizon showed the maximum soil development in the clay flat and intermediate alluvial fan-clay flat landforms. Clay coating on sand in thin section was the evidence of clay illuviation in Btk horizon. Carbonate nodules associated with clay coating are the compound pedofeature in Btk horizon. These evidences reflect polygenetic nature of the soils and different period of climate change and soil formation. Smectite, mica, chlorite and palygorskite are the clay minerals in the studied soils. Similar to soils in arid regions of Iran, palygorskite was found in Bk, Bt and Bz horizons. The existence of Bk horizon in overlying soils, buried Btk horizon, removal of surface horizon in alluvial fan are the evidences of regressive and progressive of pedogenic processes in the study area. Btk horizon represents a warm and wetter and Bk horizon indicates a relatively wetter period in comparison to present time.
Conclusion: Btk was the most developed horizon in the study area that occurred as buried paleosol in alluvial fan. Bk, Bw, By and Bz were the common horizon in other landforms. Clay coating and red color of Btk horizon might seem as indicators of hot and humid conditions in the past, during the argillic horizon formation. Covered carbonate nodules with clay coating can also be mentioned as sign of a hot and wet period which is suitable for clay illuviation and weathering after a period of carbonate accumulation. The buried Btk horizon under alluvial layers in the alluvial fan indicates that after apedogenic period, alluvial processes have been responsible in burying this horizon. Bk horizon in overlying soil of all landforms represents a less intense period of soil formation. The dominant clay minerals in the study area were Illiite, cholorite, kaolinite, and palygorskite. The sequence of Bk and Btk horizons in this research and the occurrence of these soils in central, eastern and northeastern Iran imply the similar pedogenetic conditions in arid regions of Iran.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Claycoating
  • Clay mineralogy
  • Geomorphology
  • playa
  • soil evolution
1- Alionso P., Dorronsoro C., and Egido J.A. 2004. Carbonatation in paleosols formed on terraces of theTormen river basin. Geoderma, 118:261-276.
2- Badia D., Martia C., Aznar J.A., and Leon J. 2013. Influence of slope and parent rock on soil genesis and classification in semiarid mountainous environment. Geoderma, 193: 13-21.
3- Baghernejad M. 2000. Variation in soil clay minerals of semi–arid regions of Fars province, Iran.Iranan Agricultural Research, 19: 165- 180.
4- Banaee M.H. 2000. Mapsoilmoisture and temperatureregimesin Iran. Soil and Water resarch institute. Tehran. Iran.
5- Behrouzi A. 1987. Feiz-Abad geology map, 1:100,000 scale.National Geological Organization of Iran.
6- Blank R.R., and Fosberg M.A. 1990. Micromorphology and classificatication of secondary calcium carbonate accumulations that surround or occur on the underside of coarse fragments in Idaho (U.S.A.). In: Douglas (Ed.) Soil Micromorphology: A basic and applied science.Developments in soil science 19. Elsevier.
7- Bonifacio E., Falsone G., Simonov G., Sokolova T., and Tolpeshta I. 2009. Pedogenic processes and clay transformations in bisequal soils of the Southern Taiga zone.Geoderma, 149: 66-75.
8- Bouyoucos G.J. 1962. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analysis of soils.Agronomy Journal, 54: 464-465.
9- Bouza P.J., Simon M., Aguilar J., Del Valle H., and Rostagno M. 2007. Fibrous- clay mineral formation and soil evolution in Aridisols of northeastern Patagonia, Argentina. Geoderma, 139: 38-50.
10- Briere P.R. 2000. Playa, playa lake, sabkha: Proposed definitions for old terms. Journal of Arid Environment, 45:1-7.
11- Canton Y., Sole-Benet A., and Lazaro R. 2003. Soil-geomorphology relations in gypsiferous materials of the Teberans Desert(Almaria, SE Spain). Geoderma, 115: 193-222.
12- Chardot V., Echevarria G., Gury M., Massoura S., and Morel J.L. 2007.Nickel bioavailability in an ultramafic toposequence in the Vosges Mountains (France). Plant and Soil,293:7-21.
13- Deckers J., Spaargaren O., and Nachtergaele F. 2001. Vertisols: genesis, properties and soils cape management for sustainable development. In: J.K. Syers, F.W.T. Penning de Vries and PhibionNyamudeza. The sustainable management of Bertisols.CABIPublishing.
14- Farpoor M.H., Eghbal M.K., and Khademi H. 2003. Genesis and micromorphology of saline and gypsiferousaridisols on different geomorphic surfaces in nough area, Rafsanjan.Journal of science and Technology of Agriculture natural Resources. 7:71-93. (In Persian with English abstract).
15- Farpoor M.H., Khademi H., Eghbal M.K., and Kroeus H.R. 2004. Mode of gypsum in south eastern Iran soils as revealed by isotopic composition of crystallization water.Geoderma, 121:233-242.
16- Farpoor M.H., and Irannejad M. 2013. Soil genesis and clay mineralogy on Aliabbas River Alluvial Fan, Kerman Province. Arabian Journal of Geoscience, 6:921-928.
17- Francis M. L., Fey M.V., Prinsloo H.B., Ellis F., Mills A.J., and Medinski T.V. 2007. Soils of Namaqualand: Compositions for aridity. Jurnal of Arid Environment, 70: 588-603.
18- Froghifar H. 2010. Evaluating the quality factors and their relationship to the evolution and diversity of soil by geostatistics in Tabriz plain, Ph.D Thesis, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, 166P.
19- Garcia F.J.A., Martin M. M., and Galindo A.L. 2002. Clay mineralogy of the Tertiary sediments in the internal subbetic of Maloga Province Spain: Implications for geodynamic evolution. Clay Miner, 36:615-620.
20- Gerrard J. 1992. Soil Geomorphology an Integration of Pedology and Geomorphology. Chapman & Hall.
21- Gunal H., and Ransom M.D. 2006. Genesis and micromorphology of loess-derived soils from central Kansas.Catena, 65:222-236.
22- Hojati S., Khademi H., Faz Cano A., Ayoubi S., and Landi A. 2013. Factors affecting the occurrence of palygorskite in central Iranian soils developed on Tertiary sediments. Pedosphere, 23: 359-371
23- Jackson M.L. 1975. Soil Chemical Analysis Advanced Course, UnivWis College of Agric., Dept. Soils, Madison, WI. 894 pp.
24- Karimi A.R., Khademi H., and Jalalian A. 2008. Loess soils identify and distinguish from others oils in the southern city of Mashhad. Journal of Scienceand Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 12:185-201.(In Persian with English abstract).
25- Khademi H., and Mermut A. R. 1998. Source of palygorskite gypsiferous Aridisols and associated sediments from Central Iran. Clay minerals, 33:561-578.
26- Khormali F., and Abtahi A. 2003. Origin and distribution of clay minerals in calcareous arid and semiarid soils of Fars Province, Southern Iran. Clay minerals, 38:511-527.
27- Khormali F., Abtahi A., Mahmoodi S., and Stoops G. 2003. Argillic horizon development in calcareous soils of arid and semiarid regions of southern Iran.Catena, 53:273-301.
28- Khormali F., Abtahi A., and Stoops G. 2006. Micromorphology of calcitic features in highly calcareous soils of Fars, Province, Southern Iran. Geoderma, 132:31- 46.
29- Khresat S. A., and Qudah E.A. 2006. Formation and properties of aridic soils Azraq Basin in northeastern Jordan. Journal of Arid Environment, 64:116-136.
30- Kittric J.A., and Hope E.W. 1963. A procedure for the particle size sepration of soil for X-ray dhffraction analysis. Journal of Ameraica Soil Science Society, 96:312-325.
31- Krinsley D. B. 1970. A geomorphological and paleoclimatological study of the playas of Iran, Geological Survey U.S. Department of Interior, Washington D.C, 486 pp.
32- Kuznetsova A., and Khokhlova O. 2015. Dynamic and genesis of calcic accumulation in soils and sediments of the Argentiean Pampa. International Journal of sediment Research, 24: 110-124.
33- Lessovaia S., Dultz S., Polekhovsky Y., Krupskaya V., Vigasina M., and Melchakova L. 2012. Rock control of pedogenic clay mineral formation in a shallow soil from serpentinousdunite in the Polar Urals, Russia.Applied Clay Science, 64: 4-11.
34- Minasny B., McBratney A.B., and Salvador-Blanes S. 2008. Quantitative models for pedogenesis- A review. Geoderma, 144:140-157.
35- Moazallahi M., and Farpoor M.H. 2012. Soil genesis and clay mineralogy along xeric-aridicclimotoposeqence in South Central Iran. Journal of Agriculture Science Technology, 14:683-696.
36- Nelson D.W., and Sommers L.E. 1982. Total Carbon, Organic matter.In: A.L. Page et al. (Ed.), Method of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2 nd ed., Agron. Monger.No. 9.ASA and SSSA. Madison, WI. 539-577.
37- Nelson R.E. 1982. Carbonate and Gypsum P. 181-196. In: A. L. Page et al. (Ed.), Method of Soil Analysis. Part 2. 2 nd ed., Agron. Monger.No. 9.ASA and SSSA. Madison, WI.
38- Neyestani M., and Farpoor M.H. 2014. Genesis, clay mineralogy and micromorphology of salin-gypsiferous soils in Kheirabad playa, Sirjan. Research Journal of khoshkboom. 4: 65-78.
39- Owliaie H.R., Abtahi A., and Heck R.J. 2006. Pedogenesis and clay mineralogical investigation of soils formed on gypsiferous and calcareous materias, ontransect southwestern Iran. Geoderma, 134: 62-81.
40- Page S.E., Wust R.A.J., Wriss D., Rieley J.O., Shotyk W., and Limins S. 2004. A Record of Late Pleistocene and Holocene carbon accumulation and implication for past, present and future carbon dynamics. Journal of Quarternary Science, 19: 625-635.
41- Peter M.J., Konen M.E., and Curry B.B. 2009. Pedogenesis of a catena of the Farmdale Sangamon geosol complex in the north central united states. Palaeogeography, 282:119-132.
42- Sahebjam A. 2000. Study of reconancation of soil survey and classification of Feizabad plain in Khorasan province. Soil and water institute. Tehran. Iran. (In Persian).
43- Salehi M.H., Khademi H., and Karimian Eghbal M. 2002. Genesis of clay minerals in soils from ChaharMehalBakhtiari Province, Iran. Book of Abstracts of the Conference on Sustainable Use and Management of Soils in Arid and Semiarid Region. September 2002. Cartagena, Spain.
44- Sanjari S., Farpoor M.H., Karimian Eghbal M., and Esfandiarpoor Borojeni I. 2011. Genesis, micromorphology and clay mineralogy of soils located on different geomorphic surface in Jiroft area. Journalof Soil and Water (Agricultural Science and Technology), 25: 411-425.
45- Sanjari S., and Boromand N. 2014. Study ofclay mineralogy of soils located on different geomorphic suarfaces in Sardoeieh-Jiroft. Jornal of soil science, 28: 209-219.
46- Shaetzel R., and Anderson P. 2005. Soils genesis and geomorphology, Cambridge University Press, New York.
47- Shankar N., and Achyuthan H. 2007. Genesis of calcic and petrocalcic horizons from Combatore, Tamil Nadu: Micromorphology and geochemical studies, Qauaternary International, 175, 140-154.
48- Soil Survey Staff. 2014. Soil Taxonomy: basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys. 12th ed., Washington D.C.
49- Stoops G. 2003. Guidelines for the Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Sections.SSSA, Madison, WI. 182p.
50- Toomanian N., Jalalian A., and Karimian Eghbal M. 2001. Genesis of gypsum enriched soils in north-west Isfahan, Iran. Geoderma, 99:199-224.
51- Tsubo M., Basnayak J., Fukai S., Sihathep V., Siyavong P., and Sipaseuth M.C. 2006. Toposequential effects on water balance and productivity in rainfed lowland rice ecosystem in Southern Laos. Field Crops Resarch, 97: 209-220.
52- Vedrine S., Strasser A., and Hug W. 2007. Oncoid growth distribution controled by sea level fluctuation and climate, 53:535-552.
53- Yousefifard M., Ayoubi Sh., Pochc R., Jalalian A., Khademi H., and Khormali F. 2015. Clay transformation and pedogenic calcite formation on a lithosequence of igneous rocks in northwestern Iran. Catena, 133: 186-197.