بررسی تاثیر سطوح مختلف دور آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب سیب‌زمینی در روش آبیاری قطره ای زیر سطحی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

این تحقیق با هدف بررسی تاثیر دور آبیاری و درصد نیتروژن مصرفی روی عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب سیب‌زمینی رقم اکریا به صورت طرح آماری فاکتوریل در قالب بلوکهای کامل تصادفی با دو فاکتور دور آبیاری در دو سطح (2 روز(I1) و 4 روز (I2)) و مقدار نیتروژن در سه سطح (100 درصد (N1)، 75 درصد (N2)و50 درصد (N3) توصیه کودی) در سه تکرار و در دو سال زراعی 1391 و 1392 انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که اثر دور آبیاری روی میزان عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب معنی‌دار نبود. اثر درصد نیتروژن مصرفی در سطح 5 درصد و اثر متقابل دور آبیاری × درصد نیتروژن در سطح 1 درصد معنی دار شد. عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب سیب‌زمینی در دو تیمار دور آبیاری 2 و 4 روز به ترتیب برابر با 789/29 و 756/27 تن در هکتار و 006/4 و 728/3 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب بدست آمد که با هم اختلاف معنی‌دار نداشتند. عملکرد سیب‌زمینی در سه سطح نیتروژن 100، 75 و 50 درصد به ترتیب برابر با 167/31 ، 275/29 و 875/25 تن در هکتار بدست آمد که با هم اختلاف معنی دار داشتند. بیشترین میزان کارایی مصرف آب با مقدار 183/4 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب از تیمار 100 درصد نیتروژن مصرفی بدست آمد که در دو تیمار 75 و 50 درصد به ترتیب برابر با 933/3 و 483/4 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب بود. تیمار دور آبیاری چهار روز و 100 درصد نیتروژن مصرفی بالاترین و تیمار دور آبیاری چهار روز و 50 درصد نیتروزن مصرفی کمترین عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب را داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Different Levels of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Potato in Subsurface Drip Irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Jolaini
  • mohammad karimi
Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of Razavi Khorasan Province
چکیده [English]

Introduction: After wheat, rice and corn, potato is the fourth most important food plant in the world. In comparison with other species, potato is very sensitive to water stress because of its shallow root system: approximately 85% of the root length is concentrated in the upper 0.3-0.4 m of the soil. Several studies showed that drip irrigation is an effective method for enhancing potato yield. Fabeiro et al. (2001) concluded that tuber bulking and ripening stages were found to be the most sensitive stages of water stress with drip irrigation. Water deficit occurring in these two growth stages could result in yield reductions. Wang et al. (2006) investigated the effects of drip irrigation frequency on soil wetting pattern and potato yield. The results indicated that potato roots were not limited in wetted soil volume even when the crop was irrigated at the highest frequency while high frequency irrigation enhanced potato tuber growth and water use efficiency (WUE). Though information about irrigation and N management of this crop is often conflicting in the literature, it is accepted generally that production and quality are highly influenced by both N and irrigation amounts and these requirements are related to the cropping technique. Researches revealed that nitrogen fertilizers play a special role in the growth, production and quality of potatoes.
Materials and Methods: A factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out during two growing seasons. Studied factors were irrigation frequency (I1:2 and I2:4 days interval) and nitrogen fertilizer levels (applying 100 (N1), 75 (N2) and 50 (N3) % of the recommended amount). Nitrogen fertilizer was applied through irrigation water. In each plot two rows with within-and between-row spacing of 45 and 105 cm and 20 m length. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer for the control treatment was determined by soil analysis (N1). In all treatments, nitrogen fertilizer applied in 5 times until flowering stage. Potassium, phosphorus and microelements applied according to the soil analysis results. The subsurface drip tape was used for irrigation. Tapes with 300 µm thickness, 30 cm dripper spacing and 4 lit/hour discharge were applied. Tapes buried at 20 cm soil depth before planting. Water amount was measured by the volume meter at each irrigation treatment. Water amount calculated based on crop water requirement and plot area and irrigation frequency. On maturity stage, 8 m of two central rows of each plot harvested for determining tuber yields. Water use efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the tuber yield to the total consumed water volume. Statistical analysis was performed using MSTAT-C software. Means were compared by Duncan's multiple range tests at 0.05 and 0.01 significant levels.
Results Discussion: Results of combined analysis showed that yield and water use efficiency (WUE) did not affected by irrigation frequency. Yield and water use efficiency affected by nitrogen level (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • subsurface drip irrigation
  • Potato
  • Irrigation Interval
  • Nitrogen
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