تغییر ویژگی‌های شیمیایی خاک در مقابل آتش و شدت‌های مختلف آن

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

چکیده

در بین رویشگاه های مختلف، آتش یک فاکتور اکولوژیک و تعیین کننده است که بسیاری از ویژگی های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی خاک تحت تاثیر آن تغییر می کند که وسعت و مدت زمان این اثرات به شدت آتش سوزی بستگی دارد. به منظور بررسی تاثیر آتش و شدت های مختلف آن بر ویژگیهای شیمیایی مختلف خاک در جنوب شرقی پارک ملی گلستان، منطقه ییلاق دشت با ارتفاع 1400 متر و پوشش علفی، بوته‌ای و درختچه‌ای انتخاب شد. مناطق کنترل نیز در مجاور مناطق آتش گرفته هر سه نوع پوشش گیاهی با مشخصات اکولوژیک یکسان مشخص شدند. نمونه های خاک در مناطق با و بدون رخداد آتش از عمق 0-5 سانتی‌متری زیراشکوب سه نوع پوشش گیاهی برداشت شد و ویژگی های خاک شامل ماده آلی، ماده آلی ذره ای، نیترژن کل و پایداری خاکدانه ها اندازه گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد آتش در هیچکدام از شدت‌ها تاثیر معنی‌داری بر میزان ماده آلی نداشت در حالی‌که ماده آلی ذره ای و پایداری خاکدانه در شدت‌های متوسط و زیاد در مقابل آتش کاهش نشان داد (05/0P

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

2- Allred B.W., and Snyder K.A. 2008. Ecophysiological responses of Chihuahuan desert grasses to fire. Journal of Arid Environments, 72 (11):1989-1996. 3- Bento-Gonçalves A., Vieira A., Úbeda X., and Martin D. 2012. Fire and soils: Key concepts and recent

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Taefi
  • Reza Erfanzadeh
  • M. Abedi
Tarbiat Modares University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Amongst different habitats, fire is an ecological factor and determinant that affects many physico-chemical soil factors. In addition, among natural disturbances, fire plays an important role in plant diversity conservation and in some areas around the world, the presence of some plant species depends on natural fire. The extension of fire influences on soil is related to the fire severity. In fact, fire severity encompasses of two characteristics: extension and time of burning. On the other hand, fire extension and burning time are affected by humidity, air temperature, wind speed, topographical characteristics. Despite high frequency of fire in natural habitats and high level of fire effectiveness on soil parameters, study of fire impacts on soil characteristics were rarely reported in Iran. In addition, most previous studies were conducted in forest habitats, ignoring the severity of fire on soil.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the effect of fire severity on some soil physico-chemical characteristics, Yeylagh Dasht area (rangeland habitats) was selected in southern-east of national Golestan Park with three different plant covers, viz. grass, shrub and cushion. Many fires occurring have been reported in this park in each year. For the current study, we tried to select the habitats in which the fire was occurred at least one year before. A control area without burning with similar ecological parameters was also selected adjacent to the burnt area. in fact unburnt area was isolated by a road from burnt area, unable to extend the fire into unburnt area due to the road. Fire had been occurred in the burnt area in September, 2014. Soil samples with 15 replications in burnt area and 15 replications in unburnt were collected within a depth of 0-5 cm and then transported to the soil laboratory to measure some qualitative soil characteristics i.e. soil organic matter (SOM), particulate organic matter (POM), total nitrogen (TN) and aggregate stability (AS). All statistical analyses were done by R software. Before ANOVAs (one and two-ways) and unpaired t-test, we tested data for normal distribution by Shapiro-Wilk test and homogeneity of variance by Flinger Test.
Results and Discussion: The results of two-way ANOVA showed that the main effect of fire on soil was not significant while the main effect of fire severity and the interaction of fire and fire severity on SOM and POM were significant (Table 1). The results of one-way ANOVA showed that the content of SOM was significantly different between three different treatments in unburnt area (control area) while there were no significant differences between the three treatments (three fire severities) in burning areas. Therefore it can be discussed that the kind of vegetation (grassland, shrub or cushion) could affect SOM while the fire increased the spatial homogeneity of SOM. The same pattern of SOM was occurred for POM in burnt and unburnt areas. However, the results of unpaired t-test showed that POM was drastically decreased after high and intermediate fire severities. Aggregate stability and POM were significantly decreased in the intermediate and high severities of fire (cushion and shrub plant cover). Fire in the intermediate and high severities increased TN (Figure 1). We concluded that fire occurring by plants might be decreased POM and AS significantly. In addition, mineralization probable increased TN after burning. We also compared soil characteristics among three fire severities in burnt area and in unburnt area separately.
Conclusion: This study showed that the variation of soil characteristic was mainly affected by different fire severities. Therefore, we emphasized that fire severity should be considered in the studies of the impact of fire on soil in different habitats. Fire can decrease the spatial heterogeneity of soil parameters among different sites. We showed that soil POM is a characteristic more sensitive than total SOM in confronting with fire.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Golestan National Park
  • Particulate Organic Matter
  • Natural Fire
  • Soil Aggregate Stability
1- Akhani Sanjani H. 2004. Illustrated Flora of Golestan National Park. University of Tehran Press. Vol.1.
2- Allred B.W., and Snyder K.A. 2008. Ecophysiological responses of Chihuahuan desert grasses to fire. Journal of Arid Environments, 72 (11):1989-1996.
3- Bento-Gonçalves A., Vieira A., Úbeda X., and Martin D. 2012. Fire and soils: Key concepts and recent advances, Geoderma, 191(0):3-13.
4- Bongiovanni M.D., and Lobartini J.C. 2006. Particulate organic matter, carbohydrate, humic acid contents in soil macro- and microaggregates as affected by cultivation. Geoderma, 136(3-4):660-665.
5- Certini G. 2005. Effects of fire on properties of forest soils: a review. Oecologia, 143(1): 1-10.
6- Davies K.W., Bates J.D., and Miller R.F. 2007. Short-term effects of burning Wyoming big sagebrush steppe in southeast Oregon. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 60(5):515-522.
7- DeBano L.F. 2000. The role of fire and soil heating on water repellency in wildland environments: A review. Journal of Hydrology, 231:195-206.
8- Dıaz-Zorita M., and Grove J. 2002. Duration of tillage management affects carbon and phosphorus stratification in phosphatic paleudalfs. Soil and Tillage Research, 66(2):165-174.
9- Erfanzadeh R., Bahrami B., Motamedi J., and Petillon J. 2014. Changes in soil organic matter driven by shifts in co-dominant plant species in a grassland. Geoderma, 213:74-78.
10- Esque T., Kaye J., Eckert S., DeFalco L., and Tracy C.R. 2010. Short-term soil inorganic N pulse after experimental fire alters invasive and native annual plant production in amojave desert shrubland. Oecologia, 164(1):253-263.
11- Fernandes P.M., and Botelho H. 2003. A review of prescribed burning effectiveness in fire hazard reduction. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 12(2):117-128.
12- Franzluebbers A., Schomberg H., and Endale D. 2007. Surface-soil responses to paraplowing of long-term no-tillage cropland in the southern Piedmont USA. Soil and Tillage Research, 96(1):303-315.
13- Franzluebbers, A.J. 2002. Soil organic matter stratification ratio as an indicator of soil quality. Soil and Tillage Research, 66(2):95-106.
14- Ghaemi R. 1997. Destructive and threatening factors of Golestan National Park. EnvironMent, Seasonally – Iranian Environment Protection Organization 4 (2). (In Persian).
15- Gregorich E.G., and Carter M.R. 1997. Soil quality for crop production and ecosystem health. Elsevier.25
16- Gonzalez-Perez J.A., Gonzalez-Vila F.J., Almendros G., Knicker H. 2004. The effect of fire on soil organic matter—A review. Environment International, 30(6):855-870.
17- Haynes R.J. 2005. Labile organic matter fraction as centeral components of the quality of agricultural soils: an overview. Advances in Agronomy, 85:221-268.
18- Heidari J., Dashtaki Ghorbani Sh., and Tahmasebi P. 2014. Layers of soil organic matter and aggregate stability under the influence of fire in rangelands of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari. Iranian Journal of Soil Research, 28(1):39-51. (In Persian).
19- Heidary J., and Ghorbani Dashtaki Sh. 2013. The effect of fire on soil quality in semi-steppe rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Journal of Water and Soil Conservation, 20(2):125-142. (in Persian with English abstract).
20- Javadi S.A., and Mamoon Z. 2011. Natural burning effects on some vegetation and soil characteristics of rangeland (case study: Pir Gol Sorkh Behbahan rangeland). Renewable Natural Resources Research 2(1):45-54. (in Persian with English abstract).
21- Jordan A., Gordillo-Rivero Á.J., Garcia-Moreno J., Zavala L.M., Granged A.J.P., Gil J., and Neto-Paixão H.M. 2014. Post-fire evolution of water repellency and aggregate stability in mediterranean calcareous soils: a 6-year study. Catena, 118(0):115-123.
22- Keeley J.E. 2009. Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: a brief review and suggested usage. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 18(1):116-126.
23- Lavorel S. 1999. Ecological diversity and resilience of Mediterranean vegetation to disturbance. Diversity and Distributions, 5(1-2):3-13.
24- Lombao A., Barreiro A., Carballas T., Fontúrbel M., Martin A., Vega J., Fernandez C., and Diaz-Raviña M. 2014. Changes in soil properties after a wildfire in Fragas Do Eume Natural Park (Galicia, NW Spain). CATENA
25- Mataix-Solera J., Cerdà A., Arcenegui V., Jordan A., and Zavala L.M. 2011. Fire effects on soil aggregation: a review. Earth-Science Reviews, 109(1-2):44-60.
26- Matinizadeh M.1., and Gudarzi M. 2013. Effects of fire on activity of some rangeland soil enzymes. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 20(1): 213-225. (in Persian with English abstract).
27- Meira-Castro A., Shakesby R.A., Espinha Marques J., Doerr S.H., Meixedo J.P., Teixeira J., and Chamine H.I. 2014. Effects of prescribed fire on surface soil in a Pinus pinaster plantation, Northern Portugal. Environmental Earth Science, 1-8.
28- Movlavi, R., Baghernejad, M., and Adhami, E. 2009. Effects of forest burning and slash burn on physico-chemical properties and clay minerals of top soil. Journal of Water and Soil Sciences, 13 (49):99-110 (in Persian with English abstract).
29- Nazari F., Hosseini V., and Shabanian N. 2012. Effect of fire severity on organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus of forest soils (case study: Marivan). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research, 20(1): 25-37. (in Persian with English abstract).
30- Neary D.G., Klopatek C.C., DeBano L.F, and Ffolliott P.F. 1999. Fire effects on belowground sustainability: a review and synthesis. Forest Ecology and Management, 122(1-2):51-71.
31- Page A.L. 1982. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin.
32- Pojasok T., and Kay B. 1990. Assessment of a combination of wet sieving and turbidimetry to characterize the structural stability of moist aggregates. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 70(1):33-42.
33- Pourreza M., Hosseini S., Sinegani A., Matinizadeh M., and Alavai S. 2014a. Herbaceous species diversity in relation to fire severity in Zagros Oak Forests, Iran. Journal of Forestry Research, 25(1):113-120.
34- Pourreza M., Hosseini S.M., Safari Sinegani A.A., Matinizadeh M., and Dick W.A. 2014b. Soil microbial activity in response to fire feverity in Zagros Oak (Quercus Brantii Lindl.) Forests, Iran, after one year. Geoderma, 213(0):95-102.
35- Rau B.M., Blank R.R., Chambers J.C., and Johnson D.W. 2007. Prescribed fire in a Great Basin sagebrush ecosystem: dynamics of soil extractable nitrogen and phosphorus. Journal of Arid Environments, 71(4):362-375.
36- Reich P.B., Peterson D.W., Wedin D.A., and Wrage K. 2001. Fire and vegetation effects on productivity and nitrogen cycling across a forest–grassland continuum. Ecology 82(6):1703-1719.
37- Romanyà J., Casals P., and Vallejo V.R. 2001. Short-term effects of fire on soil nitrogen availability in Mediterranean grasslands and shrublands growing in old fields. Forest Ecology and Management 147(1):39-53.
38- Safaian N., Shokri M., Ahmadi M.Z., Atrakchali A., and Tavili A. 2005. Fire influence on the grassland vegetation in Golestan National Park (Alborz Mts. Iran). Polish Journal of Ecology, 53(3):435-443.
39- Six J., Conant R., Paul E., and Paustian K. 2002. Stabilization mechanisms of soil organic matter: implications for C-saturation of soils. Plant Soil, 241(2):155-176.
40- Thomaz E.L., Antoneli V., and Doerr S.H. 2014. Effects of fire on the physico-chemical properties of soil in a slash and burn agriculture. Catena, 122(0):209-215.
41- Trabaud L. 1994. Postfire plant community dynamics in the Mediterranean Basin. in: Moreno J., Oechel W. (Eds.), The role of fire in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Springer New York, pp.107:1-15.
42- Úbeda X., Lorca M., Outeiro L.R., Bernia S., and Castellnou M. 2005. Effects of prescribed fire on soil quality in Mediterranean grassland (Prades Mountains, North-East Spain). International Journal of Wildland Fire, 14(4):379.384.
43- Varela M., Benito E., and Keizer J. 2010. Effects of wildfire and laboratory heating on soil aggregate stability of Pine Forests in Galicia: the role of lithology, soil organic matter content and water repellency. Catena, 83(2):127-134.
44- Wan S., Hui D., and Luo Y. 2001. Fire effects on nitrogen pools and dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Ecological Applications, 11(5):1349-1365.
45- Wells C.G., Campbell R.E., DeBano L.F., Lewis C.E., Fredriksen R.L., Franklin E.C., Froelich R.C., and Dunn P.H. 1979. Effects of fire on soil: a state of knowledge review. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.