بررسی تغییرات شوری پروفیل خاک 4 محصول زراعی دشت قزوین تحت آبیاری تیپ با مدل AquaCrop

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین

2 دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره) قزوین

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تغییرات شوری پروفیل خاک 4 محصول زراعی گندم، ذرت، جو و گوجه‌فرنگی کشت شده در اراضی دشت قزوین با شوری اولیه 5/1 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر و با اقلیم گرم و خشک، تحت آبیاری تیپ (قطره‌ای نواری) و طی 20 سال زراعی، ابتدا توزیع شوری با مدل AquaCrop شبیه-سازی شده، سپس توسط نرم‌افزارهای Minitab 17 و2007 Excel مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد، در محصولات ذرت و گوجه‌فرنگی، آبیاری تیپ با شوری آب آبیاری 1 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، منجر به افزایش قابل توجه شوری متوسط خاک ناحیه توسعه ریشه از 5/1 به‌ترتیب به 4 و 3/4 دسی-زیمنس بر متر می‌گردد (معنی‌داری روند در سطح 5 درصد)، حال آنکه افزایش شوری متوسط ناحیه توسعه ریشه در محصولات گندم و جو در همان حالت، از 5/1 به‌ترتیب به 03/2 و 02/2 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر رسیده که در سطح 5 درصد معنی‌دار نیست. علت را می‌توان به نیاز آبی پایین و فیزیولوژی جو و گندم در جذب نمک، نسبت به ذرت و گوجه‌فرنگی نسبت داد که در نتیجه آن آب کمتری وارد خاک شده و در نتیجه شوری کمتری در نتیجه تبخیر آب در زمین تجمع می‌یابد، همچنین وجود بارش در فصل کشت گندم و جو منجر به شستشوی نمک از ناحیه ریشه می‌شود. درستی این فرض از طریق معنی‌داری همبستگی بین بارش و شوری خاک در سطح 5 درصد آزمون و ثابت گردید. لذا پیشنهاد می‌گردد گندم و جو با مقاومت بالا نسبت به شوری، در اولویت کشت آبیاری موضعی برای نواحی خشک با بارش‌های ناچیز و منابع آبی محدود، قرار گیرند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Salinity Changes in Soil Profile of 4 Agricultural Crops in Qazvin Plain under Drip-Tape Irrigation with AquaCrop Model

نویسندگان [English]

  • H. Ramezani Etedali 1
  • Maryam Pashazadeh 2
  • B. Nazari 1
  • A. Sotoudehnia 1
  • A. Kaviani 1
1 Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin
2 Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Regarding population growth rate and drought challenges, one of the effective strategies for sustainable development in agricultural sector is irrigation. In this regard, in recent years, the use of tape irrigation method has been considered in crop plants, but the use of this system will be successful if it is to evaluate the system performance in terms of soil sustainability before it is implemented and its problems are solved. Problems in the field of sustainable agriculture are saltinification of soil resources that the tape irrigation over time and due to the continuity of its use in cultivated land, especially in warm and dry areas due to global warming, climate change and decline of the atmospheric precipitation leads to salinity accumulation in the soil.
Materials and Methods: In order to investigate the distribution and changes of salinity of soil profile in the root development zone of wheat, maize, barley and tomatoes grown in Qazvin Plain with initial salinity of 1/5 dS/m and salinity of irrigation water 1 dS/m In hot and dry climate, a type of irrigation was used (strip drip) and during the 20 years of cultivation, the AquaCrop version 5 was used. The results of simulation output were analyzed by Minitab 17 and Excel 2007 softwares.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that in all previous stuides, the amount of salinity accumulated through the tape irrigation in the soil surface is greater, but in this study, due to the time effect on salt accumulation in the soil profile in the root development area, The maximum salt accumulation below the soil surface and at depths (0/5, 1/5, 0/5 and 0/16) meter of the total root development depth of each plant, respectively, for tomato, maize, barley and Wheat has occurred. It can be said that over time, accumulated salt on the surface of the soil evaporated, re-moved with irrigation and redistributed under the soil profile. Simulation results were obtained after statistical analysis with Minitab 17 and Excel 2007 software showed that in tomato and corn products, tape irrigation with irrigation water salinity of 1 dS/m resulted in significant increase in average salinity of The root development zone from 1/5 is 4 and 4/4 dS/m over the course of 20 years (correlation significance at 5% level) and sustainable utilization of soil resources is questioned, While the increase in average salinity of root development zone in wheat and barley products due to tape irrigation over the course of 20 years has risen from 1.5 to 2/03 and 2/02 dS/m, which is not noticeable and at the level of 5% is not significance. This can be attributed to rainfall during the growing season of wheat and barley, which led to salt salting from the root zone. The correctness of this theory was tested by the significance of the correlation between rainfall and salinity in the 5% level and proved to be. Therefore, it is recommended to wheat and barley with the ability to tolerate high soil salinity are placed in the top priority for local irrigation in hot and dry areas with limited atmospheric rainfall and limited water resources.
Conclusions: From the above results, it was observed that, in products such as maize and tomatoes, tape irrigation resulted in a significant increase in the mean salinity of the root development zone over time. However, the increase in average salinity of root development in wheat and barley products due to the tape irrigation is negligible and canceled over time. In other words, the cultivation of crops such as barley and wheat in areas with scarcity of water resources and soil salinity ensures sustainable land management. These results, while using water with salinity of about 1 dS/m, and soil cultivation with an average salinity of 1/5 dS/m, have been taken. Since comprehensive and practical research has not been done on long-term salinity changes and the use of tape irrigation, after the cultivation of important crops such as wheat, barley, corn, tomato, the results of this research can be used in conducting managerial guidelines, The selection and prioritization of the appropriate cropping pattern in the warm and dry areas will be beneficial with few atmospheric precipitations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agricultural crop
  • AquaCrop
  • Drip-tape irrigation
  • Salinity distribution
  • Soil Stability
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