پهنه‌بندی شهرستان‌های استان کرمانشاه بر اساس مقدار و ارزش آب مجازی محصولات عمده زراعی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه

چکیده

استان کرمانشاه با دارا بودن حدود یک ‌میلیون هکتار اراضی زراعی و باغی، یکی از قطب‌های عمده کشاورزی کشور است که با برخورداری از رتبه‌های متعدد در سطح و تولید محصولات زراعی، نقش مهمی در تامین امنیت ‌غذایی و اقتصاد دارد. با این‌حال مصرف ‌بی‌رویه آب در بخش کشاورزی منجر به مخاطره افتادن ذخایر آبی و ایجاد دشت‌های ممنوعه از جمله دشت ماهیدشت، اسلام‌آباد و کنگاور گردیده که به زودی با پدیده‌هایی همچون فرونشست زمین و فروچاله‌ها مواجه خواهند شد. تحلیل مقدار و ارزش واقعی آب مورد استفاده در تولید که معادل آب مجازی است می‌تواند راهکاری موثر در جهت حفظ منابع آب و ممانعت از بروز بحران‌های زیست ‌محیطی باشد. لذا در این مطالعه، مقدار و ارزش آب مجازی محصولات عمده زراعی استان شامل گندم آبی و دیم، جو آبی و دیم، نخود دیم، ذرت دانه‌ای، چغندرقند و گوجه‌فرنگی طی سال زراعی 94-93 با استفاده از نرم ‌افزارهایCROPWAT،AGWAT  وEXCEL  مورد تحلیل قرار گرفت. روش تحقیق این مطالعه به روش کمی از نوع پژوهش‌های اسنادی است. مطابق نتایج، بیشترین و کمترین مقدار آب مجازی به ترتیب مربوط به محصول گندم آبی و گوجه‌فرنگی بوده و همچنین بیشترین و کمترین ارزش آب مجازی به ترتیب مربوط به محصولات نخود ‌دیم و جو‌ دیم می باشد. با بررسی سهم آب مجازی سبز و آبی، مناسبترین مناطق تولید محصولات مورد مطالعه تعیین گردید. به طور مثال مطابق نتایج، محصول گندم آبی در شهرستان جوانرود با کمترین سهم آب مجازی آبی تولید می شود. در مرحله بعدی، شهرستان‌ها بر اساس مقدار و ارزش آب مجازی محصولات مورد‌‌‌ مطالعه در بین کلاسA  تاI  پهنه‌بندی شدند. علیرغم اینکه مطابق نتایج پهنه‌بندی محصولات گندم آبی، جو آبی، گندم دیم، جو دیم و نخود دیم در اغلب شهرستانها در وضعیت مطلوبی قرار ندارند اما با توجه به اهمیت این محصولات در امنیت غذایی کشور باید با اتخاذ راهکارهای مناسب فنی و حمایتی نسبت به بهبود جایگاه آنها اقدام نمود. نتایج این مطالعه می‌تواند دستاوردهای مهمی برای مدیریت منابع آبی کشور و به ویژه استان کرمانشاه به همراه داشته باشد. به عبارت دیگر، پهنه‌بندی مناطق بر اساس آب مجازی در تعیین الگوی‌کشت پایدار توام با مدیریت منابع آبی منطقه، تاثیرگذار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Zoning of Kermanshah Province Townships Based on Virtual Water Content and Value among Major Crops

نویسندگان [English]

  • N. Afshar Bakeshloo
  • K. Zarafshani
  • B. Farhadi Bansouleh
Razi University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Kermanshah Province with one million hectares of arable land play an important role in food security and economy of Kermanshah province. For example, Kermanshah province holds third in wheat yield per hectare; second in chickpea production; third in maize production; third in sugar beet yield per hectare; and seventh in tomato production. However, unsustainable behavior of farmers in one hand and overuse of water consumption have depleted water reserves which in turn has developed “prohibited plains” in the region. For example, several regions such as Mahidasht, Islamabad, and Kangavar are consider as forbidden areas and still extending in size. In addition, with the continued overuse of water resources we will soon experience huge sinkholes across the province. Therefore, there is a need to study the content and value of virtual water in order to zone cultivated areas based on virtual water. This could be an effective way to maintain water resources and prevent environmental crises.
Materials and Methods: This study used quantitative documentary research method. Using secondary data source, we collected data from various sources such as FAO data bank, Agricultural Jihad Organization data source, Meteorological organization, Agricultural Research Center, and Department of Soil and Water Management. This documentary research sought to investigate the content and value of virtual water used in irrigated and rainfed farming across wheat, barley, chickpea, maize, sugar beet, and tomatoes during 2014-2015 using CROPWAT, AGWAT, and EXCEL software. In addition, the share of green and blue virtual water was estimated in the study. Finally, 12 provinces were zoned from classes A to Z based on virtual water content and value of the products. 
Results and Discussion: Results revealed that wheat with 1.96 to 3.68 m3/kg is the most consumable product that about 60 percent of the cultivated areas of wheat are located in areas of the province that are inappropriate in terms of content and value of virtual water. Also, tomato with the value of 0.09 to 0.38 m3/kg had the lowest virtual water content and average value of virtual water. According to the results, the sugar beet product is in desirable condition in terms of virtual water content and had moderate conditions in virtual water value.  Finally, about 80% of maize produced in areas that are not in a desirable position in terms of virtual water content and value.
Results of green and blue virtual water showed that spring products such as sugar beet, tomatoes and maize received their water requirement from surface and groundwater resources. In addition, the largest blue component of wheat was related to Harsin city and the lowest was related to Javanrod city. For irrigated barley, the smallest and the largest share of blue virtual water were related to cities of Qasr Shirin and Sahne respectively.
Conclusion: Overall, the results of this study revealed that irrigated wheat and barley have a poor condition in terms of the content and the value of virtual water. However, since wheat and barley are considered as a strategic products policymaker should take appropriate measures in order to provide sustainable cultivation of wheat and barley. For example, improved farming, plant breeding, changing the growing season according to climatic conditions, developing cultivation in suitable areas, as well as applying appropriate pricing and support policies, including training of beneficiaries, and improving insurance policies could provide appropriate measures if Iran is to be self-sufficient in wheat and barley production.
Results of this study has practical significance for agricultural policymakers in Iran in general and Kermanshah province in particular.  For example, zoning of crop cultivation based on the content and value of virtual water provided in this study can be an effective tool in modelling cropping pattern and sound water management policies. In addition, effective cropping pattern as well as sound water management resources would encourage farmers to engage in climate smart agriculture. Moreover, cultivation zoning based on content and value of virtual water is considered as a climate smart agriculture technique. This in turn would create resilient farming system in the study area. Through resilient farming system, farmers better adapt to climatic condition more effectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • virtual water
  • green virtual water
  • blue virtual water
  • virtual water value
  • zoning
1- Abedi S., TAHAMI PM. 2017. Measurement and Analysis of Virtual Water Trade Balance in Agriculture Sector of Zanjan Province. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development Research 472: 805-814. (In Persian)
2- Ahadiat M., Farhadian H., and Choobchian S. 2016. The role of green water, blue water, gray water and virtual water in agriculture, International Congress on Engineering Innovation and Technology Development, 16-18 FEB 2016, Tabriz, Iran. (In Persian)
3- Aldaya M.M., Hoekstra A.Y., and Allan J.A. 2010. Strategic importance of green water in international crop trade.Ecological Economics 69(4): 887- 894.
4- Aligholinia T., Rezaie H., Behmanesh J., and Montaseri M. 2016. Presentation of water footprint concept and its evaluation in Urmia lake watershed agricultural crops. J. WaterSoil Cons. 23: 337-344. (In Persian)
5- Allen R.G., Pereira L.S., Raes D., and Smith M. 1998. Crop Evapotranspiration: guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 56, FAO, Rome.
6- Babazadeh H., and Saraei Tabrizi M. 2012. Evaluation of agricultural situation of Hormozgan province for virtual water perspective. Water Research in Agriculture (Soil and Water Sciences) (26): 485–489. (In Persian)
7- Bagheri Khalili Z., Khoshravesh M., and Ghaffari M. 2016. Investigation and Comparison the Amount of Virtual Water for Soybean and Rice in Mazandaran Province 2(1): 59-74. (In Persian)
8- Bazrafshan O., Cheshmberah A., and Holisaz A. 2015. Trend analysis of the pan evaporation in different climates of Hormozgan province. Journal of Conservation and Utilization of Natural Resources 4(2): 171-176.
9- Chapagain A.K., and Hoekstra A.Y. 2004. Water footprints of nations, Value of WaterResearch Report Series No. 16, UNESCO-IHE, Delft, the Netherlands.
10- Ghasemi Azadkhani M. 2014. Drought status survey in Kermanshah province (1988-2013) and appropriate strategies and mitigate its effects. Third Agricultural and Sustainable Development Conference. Opportunities and Challenges, Shiraz, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz.
11- Ghoddusi H., and Davari H. 2016. Critically analysis of virtual water from the perspective of policy-making, Journal of Water and Sustainable Development 3(1): 47-58. (In Persian)
12- Gholam Hosein Pour Jafari Nejad A., Alizadeh A., Nashat A., and Abolhasani Zeraatkar M. 2014. Iranian Journal of Irrigation & Drainage 8(2): 325- 335. (In Persian)
13- Fader M., Gerten D., Thammer M., Heinke J., Lotze-Campen H., Lucht W., and Cramer W. 2011. Internal and external green–blue agricultural water footprints of nations, and related water and land savings through trade. Hydrol. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(5): 1641-1660.
14- Khoramivafa M., Nouri M., Mondani F., and Veisi H. 2017. Evaluation of Virtual Water, Water Productivity and Ecological Footprint in Wheat and Maize Farms in West of Iran: A Case Study of Kouzaran Region, Kermanshah Province. Journal of Water and Sustainable Development 3(2): 19–26. (In Persian)
15- Liu S. 2013. Virtual water and the optimization of industrial structure of agriculture in Shandong Province, J Glaciol Geocryol. 25(6): 692–700.
16- Marc J., Ventresca and John W., Mohr. 2002. Archival Research Methods. In: Baum, Joel, (ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Organizations. 805-828. ISBN 978-0631216940.
17- Mekonnen M.M., and Hoekstra A.Y. 2011. The green, blue and grey water footprint of crops and derived crop products. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15: 1577-1600.
18- Ministry of Jahade Keshvarzi. 2015. Statistical Book, Vol. 1, Agricultural Crops, Agricultural Year: 2014-2015.
19- Mirasi S., Rahnama H., and Elyasi M. 2013. Groundwater level drawdown and occurrence land subsidence phenomenon in Marvdasht Plian, Fars. International Conference on Enviromental Crisis and its Solution.Kish, Iran.
20- Mirchooli F., Soltani koopahi S., and Faramarzi M. 2018. Evaluation of Virtual Water Transactions and Water Footprints of Some Agricultural Products in Iran, Iranian Journal of Water Research 10(20). (In Persian)
21- Mirzavand M., and Imani R. 2014. Determining the Optimal Cropping Pattern Based on Virtual Water Concept and Economic Profitability for Water Crisis Prevention: A Case Study of Kashan Plain, Isfahan Province, Iran. International Bulletin of Water Resources & Development 3(4): 51-59.
22- Omidi F., and Homaee M. 2015. Deriving crop production functions to estimate wheat virtual water and irrigation water price. Journal Management System 5(2): 131- 143. (In Persian)
23- Rojhani Shirazi N., Ahmadi S.H. Kamgar Haghighi A.A., and Sepaskhah A.R. 2016. Spatial and temporal distribution of virtual water of irrigated and rainfed wheat in Fars province, 2016. Sixth national conference on water resources management, At Kurdistan University, Sanandaj City.
24- Salari S., Karandish F., and Darzi nafti Chaly A. 2015. Temporal and spatial analysis of Sistan and Baluchestan province Wheat virtual climate change.Journal of Irrigation and Water Engineering. Issue eighteenth, Page 81. (In Persian)
25- Shahlaii M.R. 2017. Risk of subsidence in several plains of Kermanshah 11 September 2017. Available at http://www.ion.ir/news/258350/
26- Sharghi T., Bari Abarghuei H., Asadi M.A., Kousari M.R. 2010. Estimation of reference evapotranspiration using FAO-Penman-Monteith method and its zonation in Yazd province. ARID BIOM SCIENTIFIC AND RESEARCH JOURNAL FALL 1(1): 25-33.
27- Tahami Poorzandi M. 2016. Virtual water, Review of experiences and studies in Iran and World. Deputy Head of Infrastructure Research and Manufacturing, http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/report
28- Vanham D. 2013. An assessment of the virtual water balance for agricultural products in EU river basins.Water Resources and Industry 1-2: 49–59.
29- Yang H., and Zehnder A. 2006. Virtual water: An unfolding concept in integrated water resources management. Water Resources Research 43:12.
30- Zare Abyaneh H., Aram H., and Akhavan S. 2015. Assessment of virtual water trade volume of main crops in Hamedan province. Iran Water Research Journal 9(3): 151-161.
31- Zhang C., McBean E. A., and Huang J. 2014. A Virtual Water Assessment Methodology for Cropping Pattern Investigation" Water Resour Manage 28: 2331–2349.