تأثیر نوسانات تراز آب دریاچه ارومیه بر روند تغییرات تراز آب زیرزمینی (مطالعه موردی: آبخوان رشکان)

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه ارومیه

2 دانشگاه اوترخت هلند

3 دانشگاه گریفت

چکیده

در سال­های اخیر به دلایل مختلف، از حجم دریاچه ارومیه کاسته شده است. هدف از این تحقیق بررسی میزان تأثیر نوسانات تراز آب دریاچه ارومیه بر تراز آب زیرزمینی و میزان پیشروی و یا پسروی آب شور نسبت به سفره آب شیرین ساحلی محدود به غرب دریاچه می­باشد. در این پژوهش به منظور شبیه­سازی رفتار متقابل آب زیرزمینی ساحلی و آب شور دریاچه از مدل SEAWAT استفاده شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که در سال­های اخیر تغییر چشم­گیری در جابه­جایی گوه آب شور صورت نگرفته است و این تغییر کمتر از 50 متر در عرض می­باشد.  قسمت بالای گوه که متصل به دریاچه می‌باشد بیشتر تحت تأثیر کاهش تراز دریاچه قرار گرفته است که دلیل آن پسروی شرایط مرزی اعمال شده در اثر پسروی آب دریاچه است. همچنین یافته­های تحقیق نشان داد در صورتی که غلظت آب دریاچه ثابت در نظر گرفته شود میزان افزایش و یا کاهش تراز آب زیرزمینی برابر با افزایش و یا کاهش تراز سطح دریاچه در سراسر آبخوان خواهد بود. در زمانی که تأثیر تغییرات چگالی نادیده گرفته شود سطح آب زیرزمینی بیش از حدود 2 برابر نسبت به زمانی که تغییرات چگالی در نظر گرفته شود تحت تأثیر تغییرات تراز دریاچه می­باشد. نتایج بررسی نشان داد باوجود کاهش حدود 7 متری تراز دریاچه ارومیه به دلیل افزایش چگالی قابل ملاحظه آب آن، گوه­ی آب شور پیشروی داشته است. بررسی­ها نشان می­دهد حتی در صورت افزایش تراز آب دریاچه و به تبع آن کاهش چگالی آب، گوه آب شور پسروی خواهد کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effect of Urmia Lake Water-level Fluctuations on Groundwater Level Changes Trend

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Motallebian 1
  • H. Ahmadi 1
  • A. Rauf 2
  • N. Cartwright 3
1 Urmia University
2 Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
3 Griffith University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Aquifers are the major source of freshwater in many parts of the world. Saltwater intrusion (SWI) is a serious environmental issue since 80% of the world’s population live along the coast and utilize local aquifers for their water supply. Globally, coastal aquifers are under threat from saltwater intrusion (SWI). SWI is caused by changes in coastal aquifer conditions resulting from ground water extraction, climate drivers, sea-level rise, oceanic over topping events, and land use change. Under natural conditions, these coastal aquifers are recharged by rainfall events, and the regional groundwater flow towards the ocean counters the intrusion of saltwater into the freshwater region. However, over-exploitation of coastal aquifers in some regions has resulted in a reduction in fresh groundwater levels (and hence reduced natural flow) and this has led to an increase in saltwater intrusion. Saltwater intrusion degrades the quality of coastal aquifer groundwater resource which can lead to a reduction in crop yield efficiency, limitation on the drinking water resource as well as soil fertility and salinity of operated wells. Such problems are more crucial where groundwater aquifers are shallow.
Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Lake Urmia water-level fluctuations on groundwater table and rate of the intruding or receding of salt water to the coastal aquifer. In order to achieve this purpose, Rashakan coastal aquifer in the vicinity of Lake Urmia in the northwest of Iran was simulated. In this study, SEAWAT model was used to simulate the problem. SEAWAT was specifically designed for the simulation of SI, although it has many other applications as well, notably the combined simulation of groundwater flow and heat transfer. SEAWAT as a widely used, three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and transport model has been developed by the USGS based on MODFLOW and MT3DMS and includes two additional packages: Variable-Density Flow (VDF) and Viscosity (VSC). First, the model was calibrated and then the simulations were defined in four scenarios as follows: a) The rate of the intruding or receding of salt water to the coastal aquifer during recent years b) The effect of the drop-in lake water level on groundwater level changes trend regardless of changes in lake water density c) The effect of the drop-in lake water level on groundwater level changes trend in view of changes in lake water density  d) The effect of the drop-in lake water level on the rate of the intruding or receding of salt water.
Results and Discussion: In this study, simulations were carried out under four scenarios in order to investigate the effect of Lake Urmia water-level fluctuations on groundwater table and rate of the intruding or receding of salt water to the coastal aquifer. In the first scenario, in order to assess the rate of the intruding or receding of salt water to the coastal aquifer in recent years, three profiles have been investigated in the north and the center and south of the study area, and the results showed that in recent years there has been no significant change in the displacement of the salt-water wedge and this change was less than 50 meters and only the upper part of wedge connected to the lake was more affected by dropping water level of lake, which was due to retreat of the boundary imposed by lake water recession. In the second scenario, the effect of the drop-in lake water level on groundwater level changes trend, regardless of changes in lake water density, was investigated. The findings of the study showed that if the concentration of lake water is considered constant, the increase and decrease in groundwater level across the aquifer would be almost equal to the increase and decrease the lake water level. In the third scenario, the effect of the drop-in lake water level on groundwater level changes trend in view of changes in lake water density was investigated and the findings was also made with the second scenario, where the results showed that when the effect of the density changes is neglected, the groundwater level is affected by the lake water level changes more than about 2 times that when the density changes are considered. However, increasing and decreasing concentrations, and consequently increasing and decreasing the density, may have a great effect on the reduction and increase of groundwater levels. In the fourth scenario, the effect of the drop-in lake water level on the rate of the intruding or receding of salt water was also investigated. It can be concluded that when concentration changes and as a result of variations in density are affected, by decreasing the level of the lake, saltwater wedge would be intruded and when the effect of the density changes is neglected, saltwater wedge would be receded.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that during recent years there has been no significant change in the location of the salt water wedge, and this change is less than 50 meters. The upper part of wedge connected to the lake is more affected by dropping water level of lake, which is due to retreat of the boundary imposed by lake water recession. Also, the findings of the study showed that if the concentration of lake water is considered constant, the increase and decrease in groundwater level across the aquifer will be almost equal to the increase and decrease of the lake water level. When the effect of the density changes is neglected, the groundwater level is affected by the lake water level changes more than by about 2 times that when the density changes are considered. Despite the decreasing of about 7 meters of lake Urmia water level, due to increase the density of water, the wedge has intruded. This research shows that in the event of an increase in the water level of Lake and consequently a decrease in water density, Saltwater wedge would be receded.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Coastal aquifer
  • Lake Urmia
  • Saltwater Intrusion
  • SEAWAT model
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