مطالعه ژنتیکی و میکرومورفولوژی خاک‌های واقع بر سطوح مختلف ژئومورفیک در پلایای جازموریان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 استادیار مهندسی طبیعت، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

پلایا یکی از شکل­های اراضی مهم در مناطق خشک بوده و سطح زیادی را در این مناطق به خود اختصاص داده است. این شکل اراضی از سطوح مختلف ژئومورفیک تشکیل شده است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی خصوصیات فیزیکی-شیمیایی، طبقه­بندی (براساس دو سامانه آمریکایی (2014) و جهانی (2015)) و میکرومورفولوژی خاک­های واقع در سطوح مختلف ژئومورفیک پلایای جازموریان بود. سطوح مسطح رسی-سدیمی، مسطح رسی، فن دلتا، نوار مرطوب، مسطح رسی پف­کرده و پوسته نمکی طی مطالعات صحرایی و بررسی­های تصاویر گوگل، تصاویر ماهواره­ای و نقشه­های توپوگرافی شناسایی شدند. بر روی هر واحد ژئومورفیک یک یا چند خاکرخ حفر، تشریح و پس نمونه­برداری تحت آزمایش­های معمول قرار گرفتند. نتایج مطالعه نشان داد که میزان هدایت الکتریکی عصاره اشباع خاک­ها در محدوده 5/0 تا 2/222 دسی زیمنس بر متر متغیر است، که کمترین و بیشترین میزان هدایت الکتریکی به ترتیب مربوط به سطوح ژئومورفیک فن دلتا و پوسته نمکی می­باشد. بلورهای عدسی شکل گچ و پوشش رس در این پلایا شناسائی شدند. پوشش رس مشاهده شده در این منطقه، نوعی متفاوت از پوشش رس می­باشد که تحت اثر پراکنندگی سدیم تبادلی ایجاد شده است. نام­گذاری خاک­ها، نشان از مزیت طبقه­بندی جهانی نسبت به رده­بندی آمریکایی می­باشد به نحوی که خاک­های شور و خاک­های شور و سدیمی را به خوبی از یکدیگر تفکیک کرده و در دو گروه مرجع مختلف سولونتز و سولونچاک قرار می­دهد، در حالی که رده­بندی آمریکایی خاک­ها را فقط در زیر­رده سالیدز قرار می­دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genesis and Micromorphology of Soils Located on Different Geomorphic Surfaces in the Jazmoorian Playa

نویسندگان [English]

  • S. Sanjari 1
  • M.H. Farpoor 2
  • M. Mahmoodabadi 2
  • S. Barkhori 3
1 Ph.D. Student Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Nature Engineering Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Jiroft, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Playa, as an important geomorphic position in arid areas, covers about 1% of the continents and has attracted attention of soil scientists and geomorphologists. Soil genetic processes related to landforms and geomorphic processes are of great importance. Micromorphology is among necessary techniques in soil studies which has been used by several researchers. Micromorphological features together with other soil characteristics provide invaluable data for reconstructing soil genetic processes. Moreover, classification and identifying characteristics of soils are pre-requisites for the optimum use and management of soil resources. Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base (WRB) is among the most extensively used classification systems worldwide.
Since no data about soils of the Jazmoorian Playa is available, the present research was performed with the following objectives: 1) studying physical, chemical, and micromorphological properties of soils in the Jazmoorian Playa related to different geomorphic surfaces, and 2) classifying soils of the region by Soil Taxonomy (2014) and WRB (2015) systems.
Materials and Methods: The Jazmoorian playa is located in Kerman and Sistan Baloochestan provinces. The Jazmoorian Playa is a continental depression of late Pliocene. The playa is about 360 m above sea level with about 65 km length and 45 km width located between 58 ˚ to 60 ˚ longitudes and 27 ˚ to 28 ˚ latitudes. The area extends to the igneous Bazman Mountains to the northeast, the igneous Jebalbarez Mountains (granodiorite, andesite, granite) to the north and northwest, the Beshagard Ophiolite Mountains of Cretaceous and Paleocene to the south, and the  colored Mélanges to the Oman Sea. Soil moisture and temperature regimes of the area were aridic (and aquic in limited areas) and hyper thermic, respectively. Wet zone, fan delta, clay flat, puffy ground clay flat, sodic clay flat, and salt crust were among the geomorphic surfaces investigated in the playa. In order to study the maximum soil variations in the area, eight representative pedons were described and sampled. Collected soil samples were air dried, grounded, and passed through a 2 mm sieve, and routine physical and chemical soil properties were then analyzed. Undisturbed soil samples were used for micromorphological observations. The soils were classified according to Soil Taxonomy (33) and WRB (11) systems.
Results and Discussion: Results showed that EC contents of the saturated extracts ranged from 0.5 (fan delta) to 222.2 (salt crust) dS/m. The soils of the playa in Kerman Province affected by the Halilrood River had less salinity compared to the soils on playa surfaces in Sistan Baloochestan Province under influence of the Bampoor River. In addition, salt crust was only formed in parts of the playa located in Sistan Baloochestan Province. Clay coating and lenticular gypsum crystals were among the micromorphological features observed in the Jazmoorian Playa’s soils. The clay coating was formed due to high Na content. However, lenticular gypsum was formed due to small volume pore spaces as well as high salinity of the area. High soluble salts (Table 3) caused a salt coating around pore spaces to be formed due to evaporation of saline water table.  WRB system could better classify soils into Solonchak and Solonetz RSGs compared to Soil Taxonomy system which classifies all soils as the Salids sub order. Natric Aquisalids, Typic Natrisalids, Natric Haplosalids, and Puffic Haplosalids sub groups and Natrisalids great group are recommended to be added to Soil Taxonomy system for more harmonization between the two classification systems. Furthermore, the definition of salic horizon in WRB system (EC of at least 15 dS/m and the EC multiplied by thickness of at least 450) is recommended to be included in Soil Taxonomy, because of limitations induced by salts and for a better correlation of the two systems.
Conclusion: Results of physicochemical properties clearly showed that electrical conductivity of soil saturated extracts was in the range of 0.5 to 222.2 dS/m. The part of the playa located in Sistan Baloochestan Province is more saline than the part in Kerman Province. More salinity of playa in Sistan Baloochestan Province was attributed to the Bampoor River which passes through evaporative formations located in east and southeast of the area. Micromorphological observations showed clay coatings and lenticular gypsum crystals as pedogenic features. The soils of the area were classified as Aridisols and Entisols (according to Soil Taxonomy system) and Solonetz, Solonchaks, Fluvisols, and Regosols Reference Soil Groups based on WRB classification system. Moreover, WRB system was capable of separating saline from saline-sodic soils, however, Soil Taxonomy classifies both soils as Salids suborder. Therefore, WRB system is better suited for classification of the soils of our study area as compared with Soil Taxonomy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Caly coating
  • Geomorphology
  • Saline soils
  • Soil Taxonomy
  • WRB
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