مقایسه روش‌های کشت مستقیم برنج و نشائی تحت روش‌های مختلف آبیاری

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گلستان

2 موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور

10.22067/jsw.2021.69302.1036

چکیده

چهار روش آبیاری (غرقاب دائم، تناوبی، بارانی، تیپ) و سه روش کشت (مستقیم بذر و مستقیم نشاء بر بستر غیرپادل یا بدون گلخرابی و نشائی سنتی) از نظر عملکرد، مصرف آب و بهره‌وری آب برنج در قالب طرح کرت‌های نواری بر اساس طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار به مدت دو سال زراعی (1398و 1399) در گرگان بررسی شدند. مقایسه عملکرد‌های برنج نشان داد که بالاترین عملکرد ( 8206 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مربوط به کشت نشائی سنتی با روش آبیاری غرقابی بود و در بقیه روش‌های آبیاری اختلاف معنی‌داری بین عملکردها مشاهده نشد. در کشت نشائی ، با تغییر آبیاری سنتی به آبیاری بارانی، متناوب و آبیاری قطره‌ای به ترتیب عملکرد در حدود 14، 9 و 11 درصد کاهش داشت. بالاترین مصرف آب مربوط به روش آبیاری غرقابی در کشت مستقیم بذر (12490 مترمکعب در هکتار) و کشت نشائی (11967 متر مکعب در هکتار) بود. با تغییر شیوه آبیاری از غرقاب به قطره‌ای در کشت سنتی نشاء در زمین پادل شده، اگرچه عملکرد در حدود 11 درصد کاهش یافت ولی در مقابل مصرف آب در حدود 39 درصد کاهش و در نتیجه بهره-وری آب در حدود 22 درصد افزایش داشت. با تبدیل کشت سنتی نشاء و روش آبیاری غرقابی به کشت مستقیم نشاء و روش آبیاری قطره‌ای عملکرد در حدود 24 درصد و مقدار آب در حدود 45 درصد کاهش یافت و بهره‌وری آب در این حالت به 9/0 کیلوگرم در متر مکعب رسید که در شرایط حاضر به عنوان بهترین گزینه برای حفظ توأم منابع آبی و تولید انتخاب می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of rice direct seeding and transplanting methods under different irrigation methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Reza Kiani 1
  • Mohammadreza Yazdani 2
  • Mohammadtaghi Feyzbakhsh 1
2 Rice Research Institute of Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction In Golestan province, despite the lack of water resources, traditional rice cultivation as a crop with high water consumption is increasing due to economic justification. This issue has become one of the main problems of the province's agricultural sector in recent years. In the traditional method of rice production, a significant amount of irrigation water is used before planting the seedlings in the main land due to the preparation of the planting bed (puddeled transpalnting ) while the plant is in the water during the growing season, which causes surface evaporation of water and the losses are deep penetration. Rice Direct seeding cultivation is a method that has been considered in the world for various reasons, including better productivity of water resources. Currently, reports indicate that more than 50% of the region's groundwater resources are extracted and allocated annually for rice cultivation. In general, field information and observations indicate that the level of paddy cultivation in the province is increasing. In the past few decades, agricultural policymakers have sought to restrict and ban rice cultivation in the country, except in the provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran. The basis of the expert analysis that led to the decision was high water consumption, declining groundwater aquifers and long-term instability of water resources. The developed strategy did not work effectively among the exploiters due to not providing the benefits of the farmers in the short run because the income from rice cultivation in Golestan province was favorable for the farmers. Evidence of this claim was the increase in the area under paddy fields from 1995 to 1500 hectares per year.

Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cultivation methods and irrigation methods of rice on yield, water consumption and water productivity over two rice cropping seasons (2019–2020) in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station). Irrigation method as the main factor in four levels (permanent flooding, intermittent as wet & dry, Sprinkler, tape) and cultivation method in three levels (direct seed in dry bed, non-puddled transplanting and traditional transplanting) in the form of a strip design. The plot was based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. During the season, the applied water, yield and some yield components and water productivity were measured and calculated

Results and Discussion The results showed that in all irrigation methods, yield was significantly reduced by changing the traditional seeding transplanting to dry seed. The amount of water used in sprinkler and drip irrigation methods from traditional seedlings was significantly reduced as compared to direct seed seeding, but in flood irrigation methods (wet and dry and permanent), dry seed cultivation consumed more water than traditional transplanting. Comparison of rice yields showed that the highest yield (8206 kg/ha) was related to traditional seedling cultivation by flood irrigation and no significant difference was observed between yields in other irrigation methods. In general, changing the irrigation systems had a greater effect on reducing water consumption than changing the rice cultivation method and changing the cultivation method had a greater effect on changing the type of irrigation systems. In traditional transplanting cultivation, with the change of permanent flood irrigation to sprinkler, wet and dry and drip irrigation, the yield decreased by about 14, 9 and 11%, respectively. The highest water use was related to flood irrigation method in direct seeding (12490 m3/ha) and direct transplanting (11967 m3/ha).

Conclusion Currently, farmers in Golestan province cultivate rice by flooding and as a transplanting in padded land, which results in high water consumption (about 13,000 m3/ha). In order to reduce water consumption in the traditional way, farmers need to take appropriate steps based on the results of research work. The results of this two-year study show that only by changing the irrigation method from flood irrigation to drip by traditional transplanting cultivation, although the yield decreased by about 11%, but on the contrary, water consumption decreased by about 39% and as a result water productivity increased by about 22%. With the conversion of traditional transplanting seedling by flood irrigation to non-puddled transplanting by drip irrigation, the yield decreased by about 24% and the amount of water by about 45%, and water productivity in this case reached 0.9 kg/m3. Which is currently selected as the best option for conserving both water resources and production. If only reducing water consumption is the main priority (regardless of yield reduction), the best treatments are drip irrigation with direct seeding, non-puddled transplanting and then traditional seedling, respectively. If there is a sprinkler irrigation system in the field, this option is given priority in the direct seeding and non-puddled transplanting. If changing the irrigation system is not considered, the use of intermittent irrigation (as a wet and dry) with non-puddeled transplanting , traditional methods and direct seeding are preferred, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Direct seeding
  • Gorgan
  • New irrigation systems
  • Rice
  • Transplanting

مقالات آماده انتشار، پذیرفته شده
انتشار آنلاین از تاریخ 07 آبان 1400
  • تاریخ دریافت: 18 اسفند 1399
  • تاریخ بازنگری: 08 مهر 1400
  • تاریخ پذیرش: 07 آبان 1400