نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم و مهندسی خاک، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
2 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
3 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
4 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران
5 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
The rise in water demand and reduction of water quality and soil in irrigating areas, especially in dry and semi-arid areas of the world, have turned into one of the most crucial challenges for water and soil engineering in recent years. This issue leads us toward optimal quantitative and qualitative management of these valuable resources aimed at achieving economic performance and water productivity. The periodic evaporation and transpiration of the plant in the conditions of simultaneous water and salinity stress are known as one of the most important factors in the qualitative and quantitative growth of the plant yield. Applying mathematical models that simulate the relationship between field variables and yield can be seen as a useful tool in water and soil management issues in such a situation, which has the potential to ensure optimal use of the water and soil resources of any country by providing the plant's water needs and preventing its further loss.
Materials and Methods
A factorial experiment was performed in 2019 based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications in plots with an area of 9 square meters at the agricultural and animal husbandry farm of Aliabad Fashafuyeh, located in Qom province to examine the simultaneous effect of different levels of water stress and salinity on the periodic evaporation-transpiration and fresh yield of the single cross 704 forage corn cultivar. The applied treatments included the irrigation water salinity at three electrical conductivity levels of 1.8 (S0), 5.2 (S1), and 8.6 (S2) deci Siemens/meter (dS/m), which were prepared by mixing saline well water of the region with fresh (drinking) water and three water stress levels of 100% (W0), 75% (W1), and 50% (W2) of the plant's water requirement. The depth of soil moisture in the corn plant root zone was measured by the TDR device at five depths of 7.5, 12, 20, 40, and 60 cm during different growth stages of the plant using pairs of 7.5, 12, and 20 cm stainless steel electrodes.
Results and Discussion
The simultaneous water and salinity stresses, which led to the reduced amount of periodic evaporation-transpiration of the yield compared to ideal conditions (without stress), were simulated by additive and multiplicative models. The results suggested a decrease in the evaporation and transpiration with the increased simultaneous water and salinity stresses so that the amount of total evaporation-transpiration in different treatments was measured to be between 692.7 and 344.9 mm and the fresh yield was estimated between 50.4 and 3.2 tons per hectare. Also, the highest amount of periodic evaporation and transpiration in all treatments was found to occur in the development and intermediate stages, and the relative fresh yield in the W0S0 to W2S2 treatments was calculated between 66% and 100%. The results of modeling the relative yield of the crop based on the amounts of relative evaporation and transpiration of corn in different growth stages and under the different treatments of water stress and salinity, indicated that Singh's additive model and Rao's multiplicative model were appropriate, while the Minhas model was recognized to be inappropriate in this estimation.
The research results suggested the significant impact of water stress and salinity at least at the 95% level on evaporation and transpiration and the corn yield. Moreover, the effect of the sensitivity of different growth stages of the plant on the reduction of evaporation and transpiration of corn varies so that in the three treatment groups W0, W1, and W2, the highest average decrease in slope was related to the final stage (13.6%) followed by the middle stage with an average decrease of 8.4% compared to the control treatment. Therefore, the highest decrease rate in evaporation-transpiration slope has been observed in these two growth stages due to the beginning of flowering, fruit formation, and physiological ripening of seeds. These results come from the lack of sufficient water storage and increased salinity of irrigation water in the soil. Water stresses and salinity will reduce water absorption and evaporation-transpiration, and ultimately, reduce crop production due to the decreased amount and potential of water in the soil. Another finding to be mentioned is the priority of water stress compared to salinity stress in reducing evaporation and transpiration and production yield. Also, by managing water and salinity stresses in the critical stages of plant growth (especially the middle stage), which is the time of flowering and the beginning and completion of the maize production process, a significant reduction in the crop can be somewhat prevented.
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