عنوان مقاله [English]
Achieving food security in the future with sustainable use of water resources will be a big challenge for the current and future generations. Population increase, economic growth and climate change intensifythe pressure on existing resources. Agriculture is a key consumer of water, and it is necessary to closely monitor water productivity for it and explore opportunities to increase its productivity. Systematic monitoring of water productivity through the use of remote sensing techniques can help identifying the gaps in water productivity and evaluate appropriate solutions to address these gaps.
Materials and Methods
Qazvin plain is known as a hub of modern agriculture by providing about 5% of the country's agricultural products. Therefore, estimating water demand and water productivity in agricultural management in the region is considered important and necessary. In order to monitor water productivity through access to various data across Africa and the Middle East, the WaPOR database provides the possibility to examine the rate of evapotranspiration, biomass and gross and net biomass volume productivity based on the land use map in the period of years 2009 to 2021. In this database, it is possible to check the mentioned items at three levels with different spatial resolution, which according to the scope of the study, it is possible to check values with a spatial resolution of 250(m). In order to determine the efficiency and accuracy of the land cover classification map of the WaPOR database, the results obtained are examined and compared with the Dynamic World model, which represents a global model with high accuracy. For this purpose, the latest land use map related to 2021 Using the WaPOR database and Dynamic World in the GEE system, it was prepared and based on the classification of the region in order to check the accuracy of the user map of the WaPOR database and to determine the percentage of each class compared to each other. Finally, all estimable indicators were calculated and checked by the WaPOR database during the years 2009 to 2022.
Results and Discussion
The amount of evapotranspiration of the plants covered by the irrigation network in the period of 2009 to 2016 has been associated with a relatively stable trend, but this trend has decreased in 2017 onwards, which is one of the reasons for the decrease in the amount of evapotranspiration in this the period of time and can refer to the lack of water available to the plant due to the limited water resources in recent years. The investigation of the total amount of biomass in different lands shows that during the years 2009 to 2022, this index has been accompanied by a gradual increase in all uses, so that the amount of TBP index in 2020 was 17% more than in 2009. It shows the amount of biomass in different lands. The amount of biomass in the lands covered by the water network is 5 to 6 times higher than that of the rainfed lands. Among the influential parameters in estimating the TBP index, we can mention the amount of evaporation, transpiration, and transpiration, the increase or decrease of each of these parameters will have a significant impact on the estimated amount of biomass. The results showed that the amount of biomass production in the areas covered by the irrigation network largely depends on the high transpiration rate in these areas. From the beginning of 2009 to 2016, the gross amount of biomass water in the lands covered by the irrigation network has been accompanied by an increase, but in 2017, drastic changes in the process of underground changes will decrease the area of the lands covered by the network and many of these lands. It has been turned into fallow and rainfed lands. The analysis of NBWP index also showed that the amount of net productivity in rainfed lands is strongly dependent on the annual increase rate, and much of the crop yield in rainfed lands is dependent on the amount received. Among the influential parameters in estimating the total amount of biomass, we can mention the amount of evaporation, transpiration and transpiration, the increase or decrease of each of these parameters will have a significant impact on the amount of estimated biomass.
WaPOR database data can play an important role in estimating the rate of delayed transpiration and parameters related to water productivity in the region due to its ten-day spatial resolution and the absence of data gaps. In general, the WaPOR database can be used as a guide in the reliable determination of evapotranspiration values and planning related to water resources in the agricultural sector.