عنوان مقاله [English]
Climate change has led to changes in the frequency, intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of climate extremes. During the last decade (2011-2020), the average global temperature was 0.1 ± 1.1 oC higher than in the preindustrial era. Iran and especially the Urmia Lake basin is one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change. Urmia lake basin has received the special attention of policymakers and planners since it is the location of Lake Urmia, and it also holds nearly 7% of Iran's water resources. A huge program of dam construction and irrigation networks has been started in this basin in the northwest of Iran since the late 1960s. Despite the increasing attention to Lake Urmia since 1995, the water level of this lake has decreased. During the drought of 1990-2001, Lake Urmia experienced a decrease in its level without any recovery and is decreasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, it is necessary to project the future climate of the Urmia Lake basin and especially extreme precipitation based on the latest climate change models.
Materials and Methods
The CMIP6 models were used to investigate the future projection of extreme precipitation in the Lake Urmia basin. Considering the horizontal resolution, availability of daily data, and climate sensitivity, we selected five models including GFDL-ESM4, IPSL-CM6A-LR, MPI-ESM1-2-HR, MRI-ESM2-0, and UKESM1-0-LL. The horizontal resolution of all five models is 0.5o. The 25-year historical period (1990-2014) and the 25-year projection period for the near future (2026-2050) were chosen to analyze the extreme precipitation in the Urmia Lake Basin. The future projection was considered under three shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) scenarios. These scenarios include SSP1-2.6, SSP3-7.0, and SSP5-8.5 scenarios. Mean bias error (MBE) and Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE) were computed to evaluate the individual models and the multi-model ensemble generated by Bayesian Model Average (BMA) method. To assess extreme precipitation, we used four indices including the Number of heavy precipitation days (R10mm), the number of very heavy precipitation days (R20mm), the Maximum 1-day total precipitation (Rx1day), and the Simple Daily Intensity Index (SDII).
Results and Discussion
The performance of five CMIP6 individual models and the multi-model ensemble in the Lake Urmia basin during the period of 1990 to 2014 was evaluated against eight ground stations. The investigation of the annual precipitation showed that this variable is underestimated in CMIP6 models in the basin averaged. The maximum and minimum bias values model was seen in Saqez station by -9.64 mm for the MRI-ESM2-0 and -0.43 mm for the UKESM1-0-LL, respectively. The highest average MBE in the Urmia Lake basin was respectively obtained for GFDL-ESM4, IPSL-CM6A-LR, MPI-ESM1-2-HR, MRI-ESM2-0, and UKESM1-0-LL models. Among the examined models, MPI-ESM1-2-HR has shown the highest efficiency among the examined individual models.
Variations in the number of heavy precipitation days during the historical period (1990-2014) have distinguished three main areas for the Lake Urmia basin. The main hotspot of heavy precipitations in the Urmia Lake basin is located in the southwest of Kurdistan province with a long-term average of 25.4 days. The next hotspots are the northwest and the northeast of the basin. In the historical period (1990-2014), the precipitation intensity index Rx1day experienced considerable variability. Based on CMIP6-MME, the value of the Rx1day index in the Urmia Lake basin is estimated between a minimum of 16.3 mm and a maximum of 63.3 mm. The maximum variation of this index is seen in the southern areas of the basin, especially on the border with Iraq.
Evaluation of individual CMIP6 models showed that these models underestimated precipitation in the Lake Urmia basin during the historical period (1990-2014). The CMIP6-MME has significantly improved precipitation estimation. The results of the investigation of days with heavy and very heavy precipitation showed that the two indices R10mm and R20mm are increasing in most areas of the Lake Urmia basin by the middle of the 21st century. Trend analysis showed that the days with heavy and very heavy precipitation will increase under different SSP scenarios in most areas of the Lake Urmia basin, especially in the northern and western regions. Also, days with heavy and very heavy precipitation will have a greater contribution than normal precipitation days in the future. It is expected that the intensity of precipitation will increase in the coming decades in the Lake Urmia basin, and this increase is more for the western and northern regions than for other regions of the basin. This result may potentially increase the flood risk in Lake Urmia.
©2023 The author(s). This is an open access article distributed under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source.