عنوان مقاله [English]
Climatic changes and human activities are among the important factors that affect the flow of rivers and it is very important to determine the contribution of these factors in order to better manage water resources. In recent years, there have been major changes in the watersheds, and the amount of runoff and river flow has decreased, or in some cases, the flow has increased due to the occurrence of floods. The issue of reducing the amount of runoff, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions of Iran, is one of the basic challenges related to the management of water resources. Hydrological changes primarily result from a combination of natural or climatic factors, including precipitation levels, air temperature, and overall warming of the Earth. Additionally, human activities, such as the construction of dams, creation of reservoirs, urbanization expansion, and indiscriminate harvesting, play a significant role. It is important to note that these factors are interconnected, and alterations in one can impact the others. The increase of greenhouse gases and climate change has caused a change in the hydrological cycle and the amount of runoff in the watersheds and has increased the number of climatic extreme events. The main purpose of this study is to determine the contribution of each of these factors on the discharge changes of the Gharehsoo River, one of the most important rivers of Ardabil province, using elasticity-based methods (non-parametric and Bodiko-based methods).
Materials and Methods
In this research, firstly, in order to determine the point of change in the amount of river runoff and to divide the base and change period, Petit's test was used during the statistical period of 1984-2019. This test was done using Xlstat software. According to the results of this test, there was a change in the annual flow time series in 1997, which was considered as the base period from 1984 to 1997 and from 1998 to 2019 as the period of changes. Then, the contribution of each of these factors was determined using elasticity-based methods.
Results and Discussion
In the elasticity-oriented method, the non-parametric method and the methods based on Bodiko's assumptions were used to calculate the elasticity coefficient.The results showed that in Samyan station, in the non-parametric method, the contribution of human activities is 88.26% and the contribution of climate change is 11.74%. The contribution of human activities and the contribution of climate change for the methods of Schreiber, Aldekap, Bodiko, Peek and Zhang, respectively 91.98 and 8.02, 90.02 and 9.97, 91.98 and 8.02, 90.80 and 9.20, 92.37 and 7.62 are estimated. In general, in the elasticity method, the contribution of human activities is 88.26 to 92.37 percent and the contribution of climate change is from 7.63 to 11.74 percent, depending on the non-parametric and Bodiko method. At the Dost-Beiglo station, employing the non-parametric method reveals that human activities account for 96.13% of the observed changes, while the remaining 3.87% is attributed to climate change. The contribution of human activities and the contribution of climate change for the methods of Schreiber, Eldekap, Bodiko, Pick and Zhang are 97.71 and 2.29, 97.42 and 2.58, 97.56 and 2.44, 97.48 and 2.52, 97.71 and 2.29 are estimated. In general, in the elasticity-oriented method, the contribution of human activities between 96.13 and 97.71 percent and the contribution of climate change from 2.29 to 3.87 percent, depending on the non-parametric and Boudico-oriented method, have been met.
In this research, different hydrometeorological data such as precipitation, evaporation and transpiration and monthly discharge from the Samyan and Dost Beiglo stations were used for the statistical period of 1982-2019. First, by using Pettitt's test, it was determined that the river flow rate has changed abruptly since 2016. Therefore, the entire statistical period was divided into two natural and change periods, and then, using elasticity-based methods, the contribution of human activities and the contribution of climate change were determined. According to the results obtained in both stations, the impact of human activities (more than 88%) on the basin's runoff is far more than climate change (less than 11%). Therefore, it seems necessary to prevent the effective human activities on reducing the river flow in solving and managing water problems in the basin.
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