تأثیر قارچ آربسکولار میکوریز (گلوموس موسیه) بر وزن خشک و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم شبدر برسیم تحت استرس کادمیم

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تأثیر قارچ آربسکولار میکوریز بر وزن خشک و غلظت عناصر نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم شبدر برسیم در یک خاک آلوده یه کادمیم، یک آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا گردید. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل سطوح مختلف آلودگی خاک به کادمیم (0، 5، 10، 20، 40 و 80 میلی گرم کادمیم در کیلو گرم خاک) و سطوح تلقیح با قارچ آربسکولار میکوریز گونه گلوموس موسیه (با و بدون تلقیح با میکوریز) بود. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر قارچ آربسکولار میکوریز بر تمامی صفت‌های اندازه‌گیری شده در سطح آماری یک درصد معنی‌دار گردید. با افزایش غلظت کادمیم در خاک، وزن خشک 37 درصد و 39 درصد غلظت نیتروژن 35 درصد و 28 درصد، غلظت پتاسیم 9/27 درصد و 37 درصد و غلظت فسفر 37 درصد و 39 درصد به ترتیب در ریشه و اندام‌های هوایی کاهش یافت. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که قارچ آربسکولار میکوریز، وزن خشک، غلظت نیتروژن، غلظت پتاسیم و غلظت فسفر را در ریشه و اندام‌های هوایی به ترتیب 42 درصد و 26 درصد، 3/40 درصد و 30 درصد، 6 درصد و 4/15 درصد، 54 درصد و 2/91 درصد افزایش داد. اثر متقابل سطوح کادمیم و میکوریز بر وزن خشک اندام‌های هوایی، غلظت نیتروژن اندام های هوایی و ریشه و غلظت پتاسیم ریشه گیاه در سطح یک درصد معنی دار گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • hashem aram
  • A. Golchin
University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Soil contaminations with heavy metals represent a potential risk to the biosphere and leads to increased concentration in ground and surface water. Therefore metals mobility in soil has been extensively studied in the last decades. Use of agrochemicals such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has resulted in soil and water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Cadmium is a heavy metal with a strong effect on crop quality. Moreover, it is a very mobile element in the environment. Plants can easily uptake cadmium and transfer it to other organs. Experiments on the effects of cadmium on the contents of macro elements in plants are scarce and therefore the mechanism of its effect has not yet been fully explained. Contaminated soil can be remediated by chemical, physical or biological techniques. Mycorrhiza is the mutualistic symbiosis (non-pathogenic association) between soil-borne fungi with the roots of higher plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate biotrophs, which can form mutualistic symbioses with the roots of around 80% of plant species. Arbuscular mycorrhiza have been observed to play a vital role in metal tolerance and accumulation. Many workers have reported enhancement of phosphate uptake and growth of leguminous plants by vesicular arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF).
Materials and Methods: One study performed the factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty of Zanjan University. The examined factors include different levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation (Glomus mosseae) (with and without inoculation), and different levels of soil contamination by cadmium (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm). In this study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae species were used. These fungi were prepared by the Plant Protection Clinic in Iran – Hamedan. The soil was prepared of arable land of depth of 0-20 cm at the University of Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day), plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9) and MSTATC (version 2.10) software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01). With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01).
Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium reduced the concentration of nutrients in the plant; but mycorrhizal fungi increased nutrient concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the plant. Previous studies have shown that external hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi are able to provide their symbiotic plant potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Ghazala reported that nutrient uptake of mycorrhizal plants was higher when compared with non-mycorrhizal. It seems that the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in concentration of nutrients depends on fungal species, soil condition, and host plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Arbuscular Mycorrhiza
  • Cadmium
  • Clover
  • Concentration of nutrient
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