بررسی اثر کم آبیاری تنظیم شده و کم آبیاری ناقص ریشه بر پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی و فتوسنتزی ذرت علوفه ای

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

2 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

به منظور بررسی اثر میزان آب آبیاری و روش اعمال کم آبیاری بر عملکرد و پارامترهای فیزیولوژیکی و فتوسنتزی ذرت علوفه ای رقم سینگل کراس 704، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1393، در مزرعه پژوهشی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی انجام شد. آزمایش به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک های کامل تصادفی در 4 تکرار اجرا گردید. تیمارهای مورد بررسی عبارت بودند از تیمار آبیاری کامل، کم آبیاری تنظیم شده با تأمین 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی، آبیاری ناقص ریشه به طور متغیر (PRD) و تأمین 100، 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی و آبیاری ناقص ریشه به طور ثابت (FPRD) و تأمین 100، 80 و 60 درصد نیاز آبی. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که همزمان با کاهش میزان آب مصرفی عملکرد تر و خشک علوفه ذرت در تیمار کم آبیاری تنظیم شده کاهش یافت اما در تیمار آبیاری ناقص ریشه به طور متغیر تفاوت معنی داری بین میزان عملکرد در تیمارهای تامین 100 و 80 درصد نیاز آبی مشاهده نشد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه تر با میانگین 72099 کیلوگرم در هکتار مربوط به تیمار آبیاری کامل بود. بررسی صفات فیزیولوژیک طی چهار مرحله نمونه برداری در طول فصل رشد، نشان داد که شاخص سطح برگ تحت اثر متقابل تیمارهای آبیاری قرار گرفت. تفاوت معنی داری بین شاخص سطح برگ گیاهان در تیمار آبیاری کامل و سطوح 100 و 80 درصد تامین آبی در تیمار PRD وجود نداشت. همبستگی مثبت و معنی داری بین شاخص سطح برگ و عملکرد علوفه تر (r2= 0.98, p

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

An Investigation on Physiological and Photosynthetic Parameters of Forage Maize at Regulated Deficit Irrigation and Partial Root Zone Draying Methods

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Naderi 1
  • Ramin Fazl Oula 1
  • Mirkhalegh ZiatabarAhmadi 1
  • Ali Shahnazari 1
  • Saeed Khavari Khorasani 2
1 Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Water shortage is the most important factor affecting crop production in the world. The deficit irrigation is a way to reduce water consumption in farming. The Partial Root- zone Drying (PRD) irrigation is a new improvement in deficit irrigation in which the half of the root zone is irrigated alternatively in scheduled irrigation events. In the fixed partial root zone drying (FPRD) the irrigation is fixed to one side of the root zone in the growing season. Maize is a drought sensitive crop. In maize, secondary traits related to drought resistance are considered in producing tolerate cultivars.
Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effects of regulated deficit irrigation, variable partial root zone drying (PRD) and fixed partial root zone drying (FPRD) on the yield, physiological and photosynthetic parameters of forage maize (KSC 704) during the growing seasons of 2014 in Mashhad region. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was carried out. The treatments included the full irrigation (FI) and the deficit irrigations (regulated deficit irrigation (DI) and the replacements of 80 % (DI80) and 60 % (DI60) of total water requirement, fixed PRD (FPRD) at 100% (FPRD100), 80% (FPRD80) and 60%(FPRD60) of water requirement, and variable PRD at 100% (PRD100), 80% (PRD80) and 60% (PRD60) of water requirement). Drip irrigation tapes were placed between plant rows. In the full irrigation and regulated deficit irrigation treatments, the plants were irrigated from two sides for every irrigation. In the PRD, one of two neighboring tapes was alternatively used for irrigation. In FPRD, a drip tape was used for two plant rows and irrigation was fixed to one side of the root. The irrigation interval was 3 days for all treatments. Dry and fresh forage yield, leaf area index (LAI), stomatal conductance, leaf relative water content (RWC) and chlorophyll content were measured.
Results and Discussions: All the measured traits were affected by the deficit irrigation. The highest fresh forage yield (72099 kg/ha) was produced by the full irrigation treatment. The statistical comparison showed that there was no significant difference between regulated deficit irrigation and PRD method for the fresh forage yield. But the FPRD treatment reduced the fresh forage yield. There was no significant difference between the fresh forage yield of FI and PRD80 treatments. The dry forage yield was affected by the different irrigation methods, irrigation levels and the interaction effects of the treatments (p

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll content
  • Leaf Area Index
  • Relative water content
  • Stomatal conductivity
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